Asbestos Abatement >> How To Remove Asbestos From An Apartment Building

Where more than one liquid is suggested, the first is preferred; however, in some cases this liquid will not give good dispersion color. Take care to avoid interferences in the other liquid; e.g., wollastonite in n = 1.620 will give the same colors as tremolite. In n = 1.605 wollastonite will appear yellow in all How To Remove Asbestos From An Apartment Building directions. 

Wollastonite may be determined under crossed polars as it will change from blue to yellow as it is rotated along its fiber axis by tapping on the cover slip. Asbestos minerals will not change in this way. Determination of the angle of extinction may, when   resent, aid in the How To Remove Asbestos From An Apartment Building determination of anthophyllite from tremolite. 

True asbestos fibers usually have 0 deg. extinction or ambiguous extinction, while cleavage  fragments have more definite extinction. Continue analysis until both preparations have been examined and all present How To Remove Asbestos From An Apartment Building species of asbestos are identified. If there are no fibers present, or there is less than 0.1% present, end the analysis with the minimum number of slides (2).  

Some fibers have a coating on them which makes dispersion microscopy very difficult or impossible. Becke line How To Remove Asbestos From An Apartment Building analysis or electron microscopy may be performed in those cases. Determine the percentage by light microscopy. TEM analysis tends to overestimate the actual percentage present. (6) 

Percentage determination is an estimate of occluded area, tempered by gross observation. Gross observation information is used to make sure that the high magnification microscopy does not greatly over- or under-estimate the amount of fiber present. This part of the How To Remove Asbestos From An Apartment Building analysis requires a great deal of experience. 

Satisfactory models for asbestos content analysis have not yet been developed, although some models based on metallurgical grain-size determination have found some utility. Estimation is more easily handled in How To Remove Asbestos From An Apartment Building situations where the grain sizes visible at about 160 x are about the same and the sample is relatively homogeneous. 

View all of the area under the cover slip to make the percentage determination. View the fields while moving the stage, paying attention to the clumps of material. These How To Remove Asbestos From An Apartment Building are not usually the best areas to perform dispersion microscopy because of the interference from other materials. But, they are the areas most likely to represent the accurate percentage in the sample. 

Small amounts of asbestos require slower scanning and more frequent analysis of individual fields. Report the area occluded by asbestos as the concentration. This estimate does not generally take into consideration the difference in density of the different species present in the How To Remove Asbestos From An Apartment Building sample. For most samples this is adequate. 

Simulation studies with similar materials must be carried out to apply microvisual estimation for that purpose and is beyond the scope of this procedure. (7) Where successive concentrations have been made by chemical or physical means, the amount reported is the percentage of the material in the "as submitted" or original How To Remove Asbestos From An Apartment Building state. 

The percentage determined by microscopy is multiplied by the fractions remaining after pre-preparation How To Remove Asbestos From An Apartment Building steps to give the percentage in the original sample. For example: Step 1. 60% remains after heating at 550 deg.C for 1 h. Step 2. 30% of the residue of step 1 remains after dissolution of carbonate in 0.1 m HCl. Step 3. 

Microvisual estimation determines that 5% of the sample is chrysotile asbestos. The reported result is: R = (Microvisual result in percent) x (Fraction remaining after step 2) x (Fraction remaining of original sample after step 1) R = (5) x (.30) x (.60) = 0.9% (8) Report the How To Remove Asbestos From An Apartment Building percent and type of asbestos present. 

For samples where asbestos was identified, but is less than 1.0%, report "Asbestos present, less than 1.0%." There must have been at least two observed fibers or fiber bundles in the two preparations to be reported as present. For How To Remove Asbestos From An Apartment Buildingsamples where asbestos was not seen, report as "None Detected." 

Auxiliary Information Because of the subjective nature of asbestos analysis, certain concepts and procedures need to be discussed in more depth. This information will help the analyst understand why some of the How To Remove Asbestos From An Apartment Building procedures are carried out the way they are. Light is electromagnetic energy. It travels from its source in packets called quanta. 

It is instructive to consider light as a plane wave. The light has a direction of travel. Perpendicular to this and mutually perpendicular to each other, are two vector How To Remove Asbestos From An Apartment Building components. One is the magnetic vector and the other is the electric vector. 

We shall only be concerned with the electric vector. In this description, the interaction of the vector and the mineral will describe all the observable How To Remove Asbestos From An Apartment Building phenomena. From a light source such a microscope illuminator, light travels in all different direction from the filament. 

In any given direction away from the filament, the electric vector is perpendicular to the direction of travel of a light ray. While perpendicular, its orientation is random about the travel axis. If the electric vectors from all the light rays were lined up by passing the light through a How To Remove Asbestos From An Apartment Building filter that would only let light rays with electric vectors oriented in one direction pass.

The light would then be POLARIZED. Polarized light interacts with matter in the direction of the electric vector. This is the polarization direction. Using this property it is possible to use polarized light to probe different How To Remove Asbestos From An Apartment Building materials and identify them by how they interact with light. The speed of light in a vacuum is a constant at about 2.99 x 10(8) m/s. 

When light travels in different materials such as air, water, minerals or oil, it does not travel at this speed. It travels slower. This slowing is a function of both the material through which the light is traveling and the wavelength or frequency of the light. In general, the more dense the How To Remove Asbestos From An Apartment Building material, the slower the light travels. 

Also, generally, the higher the frequency, the slower the light will travel. The ratio of the speed of light in a vacuum to that in a material is called the index of refraction (n). It is usually measured at 589 nm (the sodium D line). If white light (light containing all the visible wavelengths) travels through a material, rays of longer wavelengths will travel faster than those of shorter wavelengths, this How To Remove Asbestos From An Apartment Building separation is called dispersion. Dispersion is used as an identifier of materials as described in Section 4.6.

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