Asbestos Abatement >> Can A Private Homeowner Dispose Of Asbestos Floor

Material Properties Materials are either amorphous or crystalline. The difference between these two descriptions depends on the positions of the atoms in them. The atoms in amorphous materials are randomly arranged with no long range order Can A Private Homeowner Dispose Of Asbestos Floor. An example of an amorphous material is glass. 

The atoms in crystalline materials, on the other hand, are in regular arrays and have long range order. Most of the atoms can be found in highly predictable locations Can A Private Homeowner Dispose Of Asbestos Floor. Examples of crystalline material are salt, gold, and the asbestos minerals. 

It is beyond the scope of this method to describe the different types of crystalline materials that can be found, or the full description of the classes into which they can fall Can A Private Homeowner Dispose Of Asbestos Floor. However, some general crystallography is provided below to give a foundation to the procedures described. 

With the exception of anthophyllite, all the asbestos minerals belong to the monoclinic crystal type Can A Private Homeowner Dispose Of Asbestos Floor. The unit cell is the basic repeating unit of the crystal and for monoclinic crystals can be described as having three unequal sides, two 90 deg. angles and one angle not equal to 90 deg.. 

The orthorhombic group, of which anthophyllite is a member has three unequal sides and three 90 deg. angles. The unequal sides are a consequence of the complexity of fitting the different atoms into the unit cell Can A Private Homeowner Dispose Of Asbestos Floor. Although the atoms are in a regular array, that array is not symmetrical in all directions. There is long range order in the three major directions of the crystal. 

However, the order is different in each of the three directions. This has the effect that the index of refraction is different in each of the three directions Can A Private Homeowner Dispose Of Asbestos Floor. Using polarized light, we can investigate the index of refraction in each of the directions and identify the mineral or material under investigation. 

The indices alpha, beta, and gamma are used to identify the lowest, middle, and highest index of refraction respectively. The x direction, associated with alpha is called the fast axis. Conversely, the z direction is associated with gamma and is the slow direction Can A Private Homeowner Dispose Of Asbestos Floor. Crocidolite has alpha along the fiber length making it "length-fast". 

The remainder of the asbestos minerals have the gamma axis along the fiber length. They are called "length-slow". This orientation to fiber length is used to aid in the identification of asbestos. 4.3. Polarized Light Technique Polarized light microscopy as described in this section Can A Private Homeowner Dispose Of Asbestos Floor uses the phase-polar microscopedescribed in Section 3.2. 

A phase contrast microscope is fitted with two polarizing elements, one below and one above the sample. The polarizers have their polarization directions at right angles to each other. Depending on the tests performed, there may be a compensator Can A Private Homeowner Dispose Of Asbestos Floor between these two polarizing elements. 

A compensator is a piece of mineral with known properties that "compensates" for some deficiency in the optical train. Light emerging from a polarizing element has its electric vector pointing in the polarization direction of the element. The light will not be subsequently transmitted Can A Private Homeowner Dispose Of Asbestos Floor through a second element set at a right angle to the first element. 

Unless the light is altered as it passes from one element to the other, there is no transmission of light. 4.4. Angle of Extinction Crystals which have different crystal regularity in two or three main directions Can A Private Homeowner Dispose Of Asbestos Floor are said to be anisotropic. They have a different index of refraction in each of the main directions. 

When such a crystal is inserted between the crossed polars, the field of view is no longer dark but shows the crystal in color. The color depends on the properties of the crystal. The light acts as if it travels through the crystal Can A Private Homeowner Dispose Of Asbestos Floor along the optical axes. 

If a crystal optical axis were lined up along one of the polarizing directions (either the polarizer or the analyzer) the light would appear to travel only in that direction, and it would blink out or go dark. The difference in degrees between the fiber direction Can A Private Homeowner Dispose Of Asbestos Floor and the angle at which it blinks out is called the angle of extinction. 

When this angle can be measured, it is useful in identifying the mineral. The procedure for measuring the angle of extinction is to first identify the polarization direction in the microscope. A commercial alignment slide can be used to establish the polarization directions Can A Private Homeowner Dispose Of Asbestos Floor or use anthophyllite or another suitable mineral. 

This mineral has a zero degree angle of extinction and will go dark to extinction as it aligns with the polarization directions. When a fiber of anthophyllite has gone to extinction, align the eyepiece reticle or graticule with the fiber so that there is a visual cue as to the direction Can A Private Homeowner Dispose Of Asbestos Floor of polarization in the field of view. 

Tape or otherwise secure the eyepiece in this position so it will not shift. After the polarization direction has been identified in the field of view, move the particle of interest to the center of the field of view and align it with the polarization direction. For fibers, align the fiber Can A Private Homeowner Dispose Of Asbestos Floor along this direction. Note the angular reading of the rotating stage. 

Looking at the particle, rotate the stage until the fiber goes dark or "blinks out". Again note the reading of the stage. The difference in the first reading and the second is an angle of extinction. The angle measured Can A Private Homeowner Dispose Of Asbestos Floor may vary as the orientation of the fiber changes about its long axis. Tables of mineralogical data usually report the maximum angle of extinction. 

Asbestos forming minerals, when they exhibit an angle of extinction, usually do show an angle of extinction close to the reported maximum, or as appropriate depending on the substitution chemistry. 4.5. Can A Private Homeowner Dispose Of Asbestos Floor Crossed Polars with Compensator. 

When the optical axes of a crystal are not lined up along one of the polarizing directions (either the polarizer or the analyzer) part of the light travels along one axis and part travels along the other visible axis. This is characteristic of birefringent materials. The color Can A Private Homeowner Dispose Of Asbestos Floor depends on the difference of the two visible indices of refraction and the thickness of the crystal. 

The maximum difference available is the difference between the alpha and the gamma axes. This maximum difference is usually tabulated as the birefringence of the crystal. For this test, align the fiber at 45 deg. to the polarization directions in order to maximize the contribution Can A Private Homeowner Dispose Of Asbestos Floor to each of the optical axes. The colors seen are called retardation colors. 

They arise from the recombination of light which has traveled through the two separate Can A Private Homeowner Dispose Of Asbestos Floor directions of the crystal. One of the rays is retarded behind the other since the light in that direction travels slower. On recombination, some of the colors which make up white light are enhanced by constructive interference and some are suppressed by destructive interference. 

The result is a color dependent on the difference between Can A Private Homeowner Dispose Of Asbestos Floor the indices and the thickness of the crystal. The proper colors, thicknesses, and retardations are shown on a Michel-Levy chart. The three items, retardation, thickness and birefringence are related by the following relationship:  retardation, thickness in um, and indices of refraction.

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