Dehumidification >> Dehumidification Techniques

To overcome these technical and economic barrio of produced water desalination by conventional technologies, novel processes that renewable energy can be used are reviewed for potential application in produced water desalination. A specific feature of produced water is that a large quantity of geothermal energy could be Dehumidification Techniques co-produced during oil production. 

By deploying the low-cost energies, a considerable decline in operating cost is expected. In addition, many oil gas active areas, such as western of United States, are enriched with solar radiation. The high solar radiation intensity and the deep reservoir formation (located in southeastern New Mexico) make it feasible for deploying Dehumidification Techniques or integrating solar and coproduced geothermal energies for produced water heating and desalination. 

Desalination Process 1.2.1 Desalination Process Multi-stage flash (MSF) process Multi-stage flash process (MSF) is a water desalination process that distills salty water by flashing feed water into steam in multiple stages. Multistage Flash Desalination has a market share of over 60% of the worldwide desalination market Dehumidification Techniques and this share jumps to almost 80% in middle-east [Borsani et al., 2005]. 

The MSF process is characterized by large size of its production plants and Dehumidification Techniques high "gain ration” which means ten pounds of water could be produced form each pound of steam [Al-Enezi et al., 2006; Othmer, 1969]. Figure 1-1 gives a schematic diagram of multi-stage desalination process. As shown in the figure, a MSF desalination system includes several chambers in which pressure decreases from the first chamber to the last one. 

After salty water is heated by brine heater, it will be introduced into the first desalination chambers known as the "a stage", where the surrounding pressure is lower than that in the brine heater. Because of the pressure reduction, water will be boiled rapidly here and flashed into steam. However, Dehumidification Techniques only a small percentage of water will be converted into steam. 

The remaining water will be sent to a series of additional stages with increased vacuum. The generated steam is condensed into fresh water and Dehumidification Techniques collected as clean water. Seawater is heated in the heat exchanger by condensation of the vapor produced in each stage. The cold seawater enters into the desalination chamber in a counter flow with the waste brine and Dehumidification Techniques distillate water. 

The heat energy released from condensation is used to Dehumidification Techniques preheat the cold seawater. Multiple-effect boiling distillation is a water desalination process that salty water is boiled in a series of chambers by the submerged tubes with steam circulated inside. Figure 1-2 shows a schematic diagram of multi-effect boiling process. 

The MEB system consists of several effect cells in which the surrounding pressure and temperature decrease continuously. As shown in Figure 1-2, brine is sprayed into individual cells from the top, Dehumidification Techniques meanwhile heated steam is introduced into the tube bundles which function as "boiler”. Salty water is warmed up by the energy provided by the heated steam in the tube bundle and partly evaporates. 

The steam flows 8 into the steam tube on the top of cell which can be used for next cell’s energy source. At the bottom of each cell, Dehumidification Techniques there are two outlet exits: concentrated water outlet and condensate water outlet. The concentrated water outlet is used for draining un-evaporated water. The condensate water outlet is used to collect clean water after condensation. 

The latent heat from the water condensation could be reused to warm up feed water Dehumidification Techniques and reduce the energy consumption. Humidification-dehumidification is a heat-based desalination process involving enhanced water evaporation in the presence of flowing air and water condensation upon subsequent 9 cooling or capillary condensation. 

The typical characteristics of the humidification dehumidification process include flexible capacity, atmospheric pressure operation, and use of low-temperature energies such as solar, geothermal, and waste heat from industries. Conventionally, Dehumidification Techniques humidification dehumidification has been carried out in two separate columns, one for humidification and the other for dehumidification. 

In one aspect, it will increase the complexity of the structure of the unit Dehumidification Techniques and capital cost for construction [Bourouni et al., 1997; Nawayseh et al., 1997; Al-Hallaj et al., 1998; Dai et al., 2004; Hashemifard et al., 2004]. In another aspect, the phase-change invoked energy consumption only come from sensitivity heat carried by feed water or carrier gas limited water evaporation capacity. 

At the same time, large quantity of latent heat will be released during vapor condensation process in a separate column. Even specific designs are generally deployed to reuse the latent heat; Dehumidification Techniques only partially latent heat can be reused. To overcome the high energy consumption during the phase conversion process, the latent heat released by the dehumidification process could be deployed for feed water preheating. 

In recent years, Beckman et al.,Dehumidification Techniques has developed a Dewvaporation process in which the heat released from vapor condensation can be reused directly for water evaporation and dramatically enhances the efficacy of latent heat reuse. In the dew vaporation process, Dehumidification Techniques humidification and dehumidification occur continuously in two chambers with an internal liquid heat exchanger on the evaporation side. 

Room temperature air is used as carrier-gas to evaporate salty water Dehumidification Techniques and to form pure condensate from dew at constant atmospheric pressure. The heat needed for evaporation is supplied by the heat released by dew fall condensation on opposite side of a heat exchange wall [Hamieh et al., 2006]. This process is formed by three major parts: humidifier, where the air was drove into and humidified to saturation condition.

Condenser, where the water vapor can be condensed for clean water creation Dehumidification Techniques; and water pre-heat system, where the feed water is further heated to elevate temperature by waste energy. One limitation of the referenced desalination process is its low water recovery and high sensitivity in heat loss [Parekh et al., 2004]. 

More recently, Dehumidification Techniques a process named AltelaRain™ technology has been utilized by Altela, Inc [Bruff, 2006]. Water was evaporated in the presence of flowing air, forming humidified air. Purified water is then collected as the air is subsequently cooled. The challenge for their distillation process is the high energy intensity needed for phase conversion from liquid to gas. 

Use of latent heat recovery for improved energy efficiency has been investigated [Parekh, et al., 2004]. As a consequence of water vapor condensation, large amount of latent heat will be released Dehumidification Techniques and collected for water preheating [Hamieh, et al., 2006].

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