Dehumidification >> Calculate Space In A Flooded Room For A Dehumidifi

Desiccants are materials that attract and hold moisture, and desiccant air-conditioning systems provide a method of drying air before it enters a conditioned space. With the high levels of fresh air now required for building ventilation, Calculate Space In A Flooded Room For A Dehumidifi removing moisture has become increasingly important. 

Desiccant dehumidification systems are growing in popularity because of their ability to Calculate Space In A Flooded Room For A Dehumidifi remove moisture from outdoor ventilation air while allowing conventional air-conditioning systems to deal primarily with control temperature (sensible cooling loads). 

Opportunities Desiccant dehumidification is a new approach to space conditioning that offers solutions for many of the current economic, environmental, Calculate Space In A Flooded Room For A Dehumidifi and regulatory issues being faced by facility managers. Indoor air quality is improved through higher ventilation rates, and achieving those fresh air make-up rates becomes more feasible with desiccant systems. 

At "low load conditions" outdoor air used for ventilation Calculate Space In A Flooded Room For A Dehumidifi and recirculated air from the building have to be dehumidified more than they have to be cooled. Properly integrated desiccant dehumidification systems have become cost-effective additions to many building HVAC systems because of: Their ability to recover energy from conditioned air that is normally exhausted from buildings. 

The lower cost of dehumidification when low-sensible load, Calculate Space In A Flooded Room For A Dehumidifi high-latent load conditions are met. The greater comfort achieved with dehumidified air. The promotion of gas cooling for summer air-conditioning by utilities in the form of preferential gas cooling rates. High electric utility demand charges, which encourage a shift away from conventional, electrically driven air-conditioning (which requires a heavy daytime loading). 

Desiccant systems offer significant potential for energy savings (0.1 to 0.4 quads nationwide). They also inhibit microbiological growth by maintaining lower humidity levels. Better control of humidity prevents moisture, mildew, and Calculate Space In A Flooded Room For A Dehumidifi rot damage to building materials. 

Desiccant dehumidification is particularly attractive in applications where building exhaust air is readily available for an energy-recovery ventilator (ERV, or "passive" desiccant system) or where a source of waste heat from other building operations is Calculate Space In A Flooded Room For A Dehumidifi available to regenerate an "active" desiccant system. 

To dehumidify air streams, desiccant materials are impregnated into a lightweight honeycomb Calculate Space In A Flooded Room For A Dehumidifi or corrugated matrix that is formed into a wheel. This wheel is rotated through a supply or process air stream on one side that is dried by the desiccant before being routed into the building. The wheel continues to rotate through a reactivation or regeneration air stream on the other side that dries out the desiccant and carries the moisture out of the building. 

The desiccant can be reactivated with air that is either hotter or drier than the process air. "Passive" desiccant wheels, which are used in total ERVs and enthalpy exchangers, Calculate Space In A Flooded Room For A Dehumidifi use dry air that is usually building exhaust air for regeneration. Passive desiccant wheels require additional fan power only to move the air and the energy contained in the exhaust air stream. 

However, passive desiccants cannot remove as much moisture from incoming ventilation air as active desiccant systems Calculate Space In A Flooded Room For A Dehumidifi and are ultimately limited in sensible and latent capacity by the temperature and dryness of exhaust air leaving the building. "Active" desiccant wheels use heated air and require a thermal energy source for regeneration. 

The illustration above shows the operational characteristics of active and passive desiccant wheels. The advantage of active desiccant wheels is that they dry the supply air continuously—to any desired humidity level—in all weather, Calculate Space In A Flooded Room For A Dehumidifi regardless of the moisture content of the building's exhaust air. 

They can be regenerated with natural gas combustion or another heat source, independent of—or in combination with—building exhaust air, which allows more installation flexibility. The regeneration process, Calculate Space In A Flooded Room For A Dehumidifi however, requires heat input to dry the desiccant; this usually increases the operating cost of the system. 

Active desiccant wheels can remove much more moisture than passive systems Calculate Space In A Flooded Room For A Dehumidifi and thus are the only desiccant approach that allows truly independent humidity control to any desired level. d Energy Resources Program, Office of Power Technologies, EERE, U.S. Department of Energy, 1000 Independence Avenue, SW, Washington, DC 20585- 0121. 

Building Equipment Research Program, Calculate Space In A Flooded Room For A Dehumidifi Energy Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831-6070; (865) 574-2694. American Gas Cooling Center, Inc., 400 N. Capitol Street, NW, Washington, DC 20001; (202) 824-7141; www.agcc.org. Advanced Desiccant Cooling & Dehumidification Program, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, 1617 Cole Boulevard, Golden, CO 80401; (303) 384-7527.

Because the sizing of desiccant systems is based on the airflow rate (cfm), costs are typically given in terms of $/cfm. Passive desiccant system costs have been estimated by one HVAC manufacturer at $3 to $4/cfm. For large, active desiccant systems, Calculate Space In A Flooded Room For A Dehumidifi the cost is usually about $6/cfm, while smaller units (less than 5,000 cfm) may cost up to $8/cfm. 

Installation costs vary according to specific site requirements. Meteorological factors such as relative humidity directly correlate with airborne fungal levels outdoors and indoors. While dehumidification alone is effective at reducing moisture necessary for mold growth, Calculate Space In A Flooded Room For A Dehumidifi it is inadequate as a single intervention as it does not remove viable and non-viable fungal spores that are potentially allergenic. 

The purpose of this pilot study was to investigate whether dehumidification in combination with high-efficiency particulate arrestance (HEPA) filtration is effective at reducing airborne mold spore levels in day care centers. Two day care centers Calculate Space In A Flooded Room For A Dehumidifi within a 2-mile radius of each other were selected. Day care center A was 2 years old with eight rooms while day care center B was 15 years old with six rooms. 

A high efficiency Santa Fe dehumidification unit equipped with a HEPA filter was installed in Calculate Space In A Flooded Room For A Dehumidifi half the rooms (intervention) of each day care facility. Electronic HOBO data loggers continuously measured outdoor and indoor room dew point and temperature every 2 h throughout the study. 

Dew point and airborne fungal spore measurements from selected rooms with controlled air conditions were analyzed by comparing baseline measurements to those obtained at subsequent time periods over 1 year. Regression models accounted for Calculate Space In A Flooded Room For A Dehumidifi correlations between measurements in the same room over time. 

Intervention resulted in a lowered average dew point from baseline by 8.8 degrees C compared with a decrease of 7.1 degrees C in non- intervention rooms across all time periods in both facilities (P<0.001). Fungal analyses demonstrated lower baseline (P=0.06) and follow-up means in intervention rooms (P<0.05), Calculate Space In A Flooded Room For A Dehumidifi however the change from baseline to end of follow-up differed between intervention and non-intervention rooms in the two facilities. 

Log transformation was applied to approximate normality of fungal measurements. Dehumidification with HEPA filtration was effective at controlling indoor dew point in both facilities Calculate Space In A Flooded Room For A Dehumidifi and at reducing airborne culturable fungal spore levels in one of the two facilities. These preliminary results provide a scientific rationale for using this intervention in future studies designed to investigate the impact of indoor mold exposure on health outcomes. 

PRACTICAL IMPLICATIONS: Poor indoor air quality is a recognized cause or contributing factor to health effects. Dampness and humidity have been linked to upper and lower respiratory symptoms in children and adults. This study indicates that reducing indoor relative humidity Calculate Space In A Flooded Room For A Dehumidifi and airborne mold spore levels using high-efficiency dehumidification units equipped with HEPA filtration is feasible even in work facilities such as day care centers where traffic in and out of the building is difficult to regulate. Clinicians should emphasize to their patients the importance of dehumidification and HEPA filtration to improve indoor air quality in the home and workplace.

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