Debris Removal >> Grants For Ice Storm Tree Removal

Determine Management Options and Goals
Any disaster debris management plan should include a disposal strategy. Communities need to set priorities for recycling wastes and determine the desired disposal options for the remaining waste. Segregate Hazardous Waste - Be prepared to Grants For Ice Storm Tree Removal segregate hazardous from nonhazardous disaster debris; otherwise your community might be forced to dispose of the combined waste as hazardous waste.
Monitor collected business waste to be certain it does not meet the definition of hazardous waste. Waste handlers must understand these requirements as well as have a plan Grants For Ice Storm Tree Removal for controlling and diverting the hazardous waste from the debris stream. Prepare Contracts - Determine what equipment and staff resources your community needs in the event of a disaster. Any assistance that will not be provided by state and other local governments must be obtained through contracts.
 If contracted work seems likely at the state or community level, consider bidding an emergency contract, as is commonly done for snow removal. The request for proposals (RFP) may include service Grants For Ice Storm Tree Removal for debris collection, storage, sorting, processing, marketing, and disposal. Investigate FEMA reimbursement policies and ensure that the terms described in the RFP are likely to meet FEMA and state requirements in the event that your community qualifies for federal or state reimbursement.
 Plan for FEMA and State Reimbursement Consider staffing needs to meet the recordkeeping requirements for FEMA Grants For Ice Storm Tree Removal reimbursement of disaster debris management costs. Some states reimburse some costs even if the disaster does not qualify for federal reimbursement funds. Discuss recordkeeping requirements with your state emergency planning agency. Your community, particularly if it is small, might benefit from identifying in advance people who have experience in obtaining reimbursement.
Case Studies Of course, every community hopes it never has to use its disaster debris management plan, but when a disaster does hit, prepared communities can recover more quickly than other communities. Below are disaster debris case studies from an earthquake, a Grants For Ice Storm Tree Removal flood, and three hurricanes. These case studies include examples of situations in which planning paid off, as well as circumstances in which the lack of planning slowed recovery.
 Los Angeles, California — The Northridge Earthquake The city of Los Angeles relied heavily on recycling to manage debris from its January 1994 earthquake. In response to the earthquake, city staff negotiated with FEMA to designate Grants For Ice Storm Tree Removal recycling as the preferred method of debris management. The city developed contracts with existing businesses to recycle clean source-separated materials and worked with more than nine businesses to develop processing capacity for mixed debris.
 By midsummer, the city was able to recycle about 50 percent of the earthquake debris collected each week. By July 1995, the city was recycling over 86 percent of the debris collected, totaling over 1.5 million tons. Collection and Recycling The city of Los Angeles Grants For Ice Storm Tree Removal did not have a plan for debris management prior to the earthquake but quickly developed debris management procedures after the disaster.
The day after the earthquake struck, the city instituted a curbside debris collection program, which did not include recycling. C&D debris under normal conditions makes up 10 to 15 percent of the Los Angeles waste stream. Prior to the 1994 earthquake, one local Grants For Ice Storm Tree Removal company processed 150 tons of C&D waste per day. After the earthquake, the city picked up as much as 10,000 tons of C&D waste per day.
City officials updated an existing list of licensed, insured debris removal contractors and asked them to attend an orientation and to sign hastily drafted contracts for debris removal. At first, Grants For Ice Storm Tree Removal contracts for debris removal were only two pages long and contracted for one week of work. These early contracts allowed the city to begin removing debris quickly, yet did not include recycling or other requirements such as subcontracting parameters. Contracts ultimately grew to 22 pages.
The city assigned each contractor a grid of streets to clear. City inspectors (pulled from other assignments) monitored contractors and kept records to determine whether debris in each area was collected within seven days of being set out. When Grants For Ice Storm Tree Removal contractors expended their total contract amounts, city officials placed them at the bottom of the list of approved contractors and called them again when their turns came.
 After two months of negotiation, FEMA allowed the city to include recycling as a debris removal method. This decision was based primarily on the city’s local policy supporting recycling and a recycling pilot that documented a potential 82 percent recycling rate. Contractors began separate collections of wood, metal, dirt, concrete and asphalt, Grants For Ice Storm Tree Removal and red clay brick. The city required the contractors to send any debris that could not be separated to facilities that recycled at least 80 percent of the mixed debris.
Most of the materials collected were recyclable. Recyclers crushed concrete and asphalt (mixed with up to 15 percent dirt) Grants For Ice Storm Tree Removal and sold it for use as sub-base in roads. They reused dirt as landfill cover and soil amendment. They ground and screened wood, selling fine pieces by the cubic yard for landscaping and coarse pieces for cogeneration fuel or compost. Recycling facilities either ground up brick for use on baseball infields or chipped it for use in landscaping.
 Scrap metal dealers recycled metal waste. By December 1995, four facilities were capable of recycling mixed debris. Two of them used an automated process that screened out fine debris and sent the remainder along a conveyor belt where workers removed and Grants For Ice Storm Tree Removal separated wood, brick, metal, and trash by hand. A vibrating screen removed any dirt left in the remaining stream. At the end of the process, only clean concrete and asphalt were left.
City officials also ensured that debris would be recycled by providing training and incentives to haulers. For example, city officials required haulers to develop a recycling plan that included scouting for recyclables and dedicating trucks to a given type of waste, so that debris separated at the curb did not become mixed in the truck. The Grants For Ice Storm Tree Removal city also created a contract performance incentive that placed source-separated recycling higher than mixed recycling.
 With these efforts, the city expanded its C&D recycling capacity by a minimum of 10,300 tons per day. Immediately after the earthquake, all debris was disposed of in three landfills. Just over Grants For Ice Storm Tree Removal a year later, the city had added 18 recycling facilities and one landfill. This expansion helped to meet a long-term goal to increase recycling of routine C&D waste.

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