Crime Scene Cleanup >> Trauma Scene Management Biohazard Remediation

Law enforcement officers and correctional officers may face a number of situations where there is occupational exposure to blood and other potentially infectious materials. In its publication "Guidelines for Prevention of  Trauma Scene Management Biohazard Remediation Transmission of Human Immunodeficiency Virus and Hepatitis B Virus to Health-Care and Public Safety Workers" (Ex. 15).

The CDC described some of these situations as follows: Law enforcement and correctional facility officers may face the risk of exposure to blood during the conduct of their duties. Trauma Scene Management Biohazard Remediation For example, at the crime scene or during processing of suspects.

Law-enforcement officers may encounter blood-contaminated hypodermic needles or weapons, or be called upon to assist with body removal. Trauma Scene Management Biohazard Remediation 
Correctional officers may similarly be required to search prisoners or their cells for hypodermic needles or weapons, or subdue violent and combative inmates. 

Law enforcement and correctional facility officers are exposed to a range of assaultive and disruptive behavior... Behaviors of particular concern are biting, attacks resulting in blood exposure, and attacks with sharp objects. Trauma Scene Management Biohazard Remediation Such behaviors may occur in a range of law-enforcement situations including arrests, routine interrogations, domestic disputes, and lockup operations.

Hand-to-hand combat may result in bleeding and may thus incur a greater chance for blood-to-blood exposure... Trauma Scene Management Biohazard Remediation Criminal justice personnel have potential risk of acquiring HBV or HIV infection through exposures which occur during searches and evidence handling. 

Penetrating injuries are known to occur, and puncture wounds or needlesticks in particular pose a hazard during searches of persons, vehicles or cells and during evidence handling. Trauma Scene Management Biohazard Remediation (Ex.15 p.15-16) The comment by the International Brotherhood of Police Officers listed a number of ways that occupational exposure may occur to law enforcement officers. 

There are a variety of ways in which police potentially come in contact with blood-borne disease, the most dramatic of which is assaults by criminals wielding weapons. Trauma Scene Management Biohazard Remediation Frequently these criminals are drug users who are in one of the fastest growing populations of individuals infected by the AIDS and Hepatitis B virus. 

It is not uncommon for police officers to sustain cuts and abrasions in the course of these struggles and to come in contact with the criminal's blood and bodily products. Trauma Scene Management Biohazard Remediation Police are also at risk from needle sticks, while handling evidence samples and accident victims. 

Correctional Institutions: Many of the situations that place correctional officers at risk happen as the result of the violent behavior of the inmates, Trauma Scene Management Biohazard Remediation a group with a high prevalence of infection because of past and present high risk behavior. 

Studies of four prison populations in the U.S. revealed that approximately half of the prisoners had serological evidence of previous hepatitis B infection with 1.3% to 8.0% of the study population who were carriers (Ex. 6-132). Trauma Scene Management Biohazard Remediation Mr. Jim Knapp, a correctional officer, testified to weapons made from silverware, razor blades, sharpened pencils, and pieces of steel and the inmates' use of needles and razors to tattoo other inmates. 

He and his coworkers have also found needles in searches for contraband, and they are often required to break up fights and then clean up the blood in the area (10/17/89 Tr. 71, 92). Trauma Scene Management Biohazard Remediation One witness, addressing himself to those who might be skeptical about whether correctional officers are exposed to blood, described the following incident that occurred two days earlier: 

People look at a correctional officer and say, "Well, you're not like a nurse. You're not like a health service [worker] or whatever. You don't have that much contact." Well, just to emphasize my point, Sunday morning I was working in my unit. Trauma Scene Management Biohazard Remediation We had a code call in the unit next door to us. I ran over. Here were two guys fighting over the phone. 

As I ran up to break them up, one of the guys threw a punch into the other guy's face and I had red splattered all over my eyeglasses. This was just Sunday. Luckily, I was wearing eyeglasses. Trauma Scene Management Biohazard Remediation (Mr. Glenn Rude 10/17/89 Tr. 81). Not everyone agreed that public safety officers should be covered by the standard. Dr. Richard Vogt, testifying on behalf of the Council of State.

Territorial Epidemiologists (CSTE), stated: The initial rules should be confined to health care facilities, specifically health care providers... Trauma Scene Management Biohazard Remediation including emergency medical technicians...The risks of occupationally-related transmission of HIV and HBV to policemen, and firemen.

Correctional facility personnel (also known as personal service workers) has never been demonstrated.(Ex. 132, p.3) During questioning by the panel, Dr. Vogt disagreed with basing the scope of the standard on blood exposure but insisted that "actual data" be used. Trauma Scene Management Biohazard Remediation OSHA must make the decision on whether or not to include employees on the basis of the best available evidence. 

These data, presented in both Section IV Health Effects and Section V: Quantitative Risk Assessment, demonstrate convincingly that it is blood exposure that is most closely correlated with risk of HBV.  Trauma Scene Management Biohazard Remediation Furthermore, the likelihood of percutaneous exposure or exposure to mucous membranes further increases the risk. 

Clearly, these public safety officers not only have exposure to blood, but also have a risk for percutaneous exposures as described above. Trauma Scene Management Biohazard Remediation Therefore, the Agency concludes that they are at risk as the result of occupational exposure. Ocean Lifeguards: 

Another group of employees, ocean lifeguards, were not included in the discussion of scope in the proposed standard and are added to this discussion of employees who have occupational exposure. Trauma Scene Management Biohazard Remediation OSHA was first made aware of the risks faced by ocean lifeguards in testimony by Mr. Ken Gunther representing a number of life saving associations.

The Health Risk Duty Imperative of Ocean Lifeguards (HRDIOL) project. Trauma Scene Management Biohazard Remediation His testimony, first delivered at the Washington, D.C. hearings pointed to the occupational exposure to blood and other potentially infectious materials encountered by these employees (9/27/89 Tr. 300-313). 

When OSHA held hearings in Miami, Florida on December 20, 1989, Mr. Gunther and 29 other lifeguards testified in detail as to the duties that place lifeguards at risk for blood exposure. Trauma Scene Management Biohazard Remediation Dr. Jim Dobbins, an epidemiologist, and a member of the Gulf Coast Region of the United States Life Saving Association, described the most common risk situations: 

In general, lifeguards are exposed in the course of their duties to blood and bloodborne pathogens in two ways. Contact exposure when both the victim and the lifeguard are cut in the process of a rescue near rocks and pilings in the water, Trauma Scene Management Biohazard Remediation and after the rescue during attempted resuscitation and stabilization of the victim. 

These routine exposures are separate from the sort of incidents ... that involve blood exposure through trauma and boating accidents, automobile crashes in the water or unusual injuries on the beach, Trauma Scene Management Biohazard Remediation or ... plane crashes. (12/20/89 Tr. 1216) 

How To Keep A Mold Smell Out Of The Crawlspace

The principal perceived advantage of a vented crawl space over an unvented one is that venting may limit radon and moisture-related decay hazards by diluting the crawl space air. Crawl Space Drying How To Keep A Mold Smell Out Of The Crawlspace Additionally, providing a vented crawlspace may make sense in flood-prone areas such as coastal zones subj  read more..

How Do I Get Help For Animal Hoarding

This study issue was suggested by Council member Moylan at the November 29, 201 1 City Council meeting. It was proposed after staff presented RTC number 11-253 "Proposed Ordinance Allowing Neighborhood Preservation to More Effectively Address Blighted and Vacant Properties." The proposed ordinance p  read more..

Can Lead At Work Harm My Child

Can Lead at work harm my child? Yes. Your child can get lead poisoning if you or someone who lives in your home works with lead. Some kinds of work make lead dust or fumes. You cannot see lead dust, but it can get on your hands, face, and clothes. You take lead dust from your job to your family when  read more..

Wildlife Damage Management Techniques

Tips to Eliminate Wildlife Conflicts Prevent and Control Wildlife Issues on Your Property Below are general tips intended to help landowners REPEL or prevent and control Animal Damage Wildlife Damage Management Techniques problems with wild animals. The best   read more..

How To Test For Asbestos

Asbestos is the name given to a group of minerals that occur naturally in the environment as bundles of fibers that can be separated into thin, durable threads. These fibers are resistant to heat, fire, and chemicals and do not conduct electricity. For these reasons, Asbestos Abatement How To Test For Asbestos how to test for a  read more..

Structural Drying

As soon as local authorities allow you to enter your home, it’s time to assess the overall damage and begin your Emergency Board up Structural Drying. A number of issues must be considered, and the following information might be helpful. If there is any water damage to the structure of your home, in many cases it is ob  read more..

Sewage Smell From Inside A Home

International Plumbing Code Sewage backflow protection specific:"Where flood rims of plumbing fixtures are below the elevation of the manhole cover of the next upstream manhole in the public sewer, such fixtures shall be protected by a backwater valve installed in the building drain, branch of   read more..

Learn Water Damage Electronic Restoration

All magnetic parts processed to the Class S requirements of MIL-STD-981 are acceptable as level 1 parts. Magnetics processed to Class B requirements of MIL-STD-981 are acceptable as level 2 parts. All level 1 and 2 custom magnetics shall be processed to the Electronic Restoration Learn Water Damage Electronic Restoration applicable requirements of   read more..

Why Do I Have A Sewage Smell In My House

Results of odor and odorants measurement at Districts A, B, C, D and E.In the instrumental analysis for individual sulfur odorants, H2S and CH3SH concentrations were higher than DMS or DMDS both before and after the agent treatment. The average NH3 concentrations before and after the treatment of th  read more..

Fire Smoke Smell From Apartment

The conservators' first assignment was to clean one gallery (the Earth Sciences Gallery) so that the museum could reopen as quickly as possible. On the third week following the fire, building cleaners had Odor Control Fire Smoke Smell From Apartment completed their first and second cleaning passes, and it was possible for the conserv  read more..