Animal Damage >> Wood Peckers, Starlings, Sparrows, And Chimney Swi

The NHPA requires: 1) federal agencies to evaluate the effects of any federal undertaking on cultural resources, 2) consult with the State Historic Preservation Office regarding the value and management of specific cultural, archaeological and historic resources, and 3) consult with appropriate American Indian tribes to determine whether they have concerns for traditional cultural properties in areas of these federal undertakings. NHPA  has determined Wood Peckers, Starlings, Sparrows, And Chimney Swi actions are not undertakings as defined by the NHPA because such actions do not have the potential to result in changes in the character or use of historic properties.

Chapter 2 contains a discussion of the issues, including issues that will receive detailed environmental impacts analysis in Chapter 4 (Environmental Consequences), issues that were used to develop mitigation measures and standard operating procedures, and issues that will not be considered in detail, with rationale. Pertinent Wood Peckers, Starlings, Sparrows, And Chimney Swi portions of the affected environment will be included in this chapter in the discussion of issues used to develop mitigation measures. Additional affected environments will be incorporated into the discussion of the environmental impacts in Chapter 4. 2.1 Issues. The following issues have been identified as areas of concern requiring consideration in this EA.

These will be analyzed in detail in Chapter 4: C Effects on Target Bird Species Populations C Effects on Nontarget Species populations, including T&E Species C Safety and Efficacy of Chemical Control Methods C Does the value of livestock feed saved equal or exceed the cost of providing service at cattle feeding facilities? 2.2 Issues Used to Develop Mitigation 2.2.1 Effects on Nontarget Species populations, including T&E Species A common concern among members of the public and wildlife professionals, including personnel, is the impact of damage control methods and activities on nontarget species, particularly Threatened and Endangered Species. Wood Peckers, Starlings, Sparrows, And Chimney Swi 's standard operating procedures include measures intended to mitigate or reduce the effects on nontarget species populations and are presented in Chapter 3.

Special efforts are made to avoid jeopardizing Threatened and Endangered Species through biological evaluations of the potential effects and the establishment of special restrictions or mitigation measures. Wood Peckers, Starlings, Sparrows, And Chimney Swi has consulted with the USFWS concerning potential impacts of methods on T&E species and has obtained a Biological Opinion (B.O.). For the full context of the B.O., see Appendix F of the FEIS (USDA 1994, Appendix F). 2.2.2 Safety and Efficacy of Chemical Control Methods Under the alternatives proposed in this EA, the primary toxicant proposed for use by is DRC-1339 (Starlicide). DRC-1339 is regulated by the EPA through FIFRA, by Arizona State Pesticide Control Laws, and by Directives.

Based on a thorough Risk Assessment, APHIS concluded that, when program chemical methods, including those referenced above, are used in accordance with label directions, they are highly selective to target individuals or populations, and such use has negligible impacts on the environment (USDA 1994). DRC-1339 is one of the most extensively researched chemical control methods ever investigated. It causes a quiet and apparently painless death and death occurs without convulsions or spasms (USDA 1994 and 1995). DRC-1339 is highly selective to certain bird species, especially starlings, and blackbirds. Wood Peckers, Starlings, Sparrows, And Chimney Swi 's impact on Biodiversity No wildlife damage management in Arizona is conducted to eradicate a wildlife population.

Wood Peckers, Starlings, Sparrows, And Chimney Swi operates in accordance with international, federal and state laws, and regulations enacted to ensure species viability. Any reduction of a local population or group is frequently temporary because immigration from adjacent areas or reproduction soon replaces the animals removed. Impacts on target and nontarget species populations because of lethal are minor as shown in section 4.1. The impacts of the current program on biodiversity are not significant nationwide or statewide (USDA 1994). Wood Peckers, Starlings, Sparrows, And Chimney Swi operates on a relatively small percentage of the land area of the State, and take is a small proportion of the total population of any species as analyzed in Chapter 4. 2.3.2 Wildlife damage is a cost of doing business -- a "Threshold of Loss” should be established before allowing any lethal bird damage management.

Wood Peckers, Starlings, Sparrows, And Chimney Swi is aware of concerns that federal wildlife damage management should not be allowed until economic losses become unacceptable. This type of policy would be inappropriate to apply to human health and safety situations. Although some losses can be expected and tolerated by livestock producers,  has the legal direction to respond to requests for wildlife damage management, and it is program policy to aid each requester to minimize losses. Wood Peckers, Starlings, Sparrows, And Chimney Swi uses the Decision Model discussed in Chapter 3 to determine an appropriate strategy. In a ruling for Southern Utah Wilderness Alliance, et al. vs. Hugh Thompson, Forest Supervisor for the Dixie NF, et al., the United States District Court of Utah denied plaintiffs' motion for preliminary injunction.

In part the court found that a forest supervisor need only show that damage from wildlife is threatened, to establish a need for wildlife damage management (Civil No. 92-C-0052A January 20, 1993). 2.3.3 Wildlife damage management should not occur at taxpayer expense, but should be fee based. Wood Peckers, Starlings, Sparrows, And Chimney Swi is aware of concerns that wildlife damage management should not be provided at the expense of the taxpayer or that it should be fee based. Wood Peckers, Starlings, Sparrows, And Chimney Swi was established by Congress as the agency responsible for providing wildlife damage management to the people of the United States. Funding for comes from a variety of sources in addition to federal appropriations. Such nonfederal sources include State general appropriations, local government funds (county or city), livestock associations, Indian tribes, and private funds which are all applied toward program operations.

Federal, state, and local officials have decided that Wood Peckers, Starlings, Sparrows, And Chimney Swi should be conducted by appropriating funds. Additionally, wildlife damage management is an appropriate sphere of activity for government programs, since wildlife management is a government responsibility. A commonly voiced argument for publicly funded wildlife damage management is that the public should bear responsibility for damage to private property caused by public wildlife. Although not required by law, it is current practice to require livestock feeding facilities to pay 100% of the cost of labor and materials in providing Wood Peckers, Starlings, Sparrows, And Chimney Swi services in Arizona. Thus, for the primary focus of the program in the State, is fee based to a high degree.

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