Animal Damage >> How To Stop Squirrels From Gnawing On A Log Home

The common raven is widely distributed throughout the Holarctic Regions of the world including Europe, Asia, North America and How To Stop Squirrels From Gnawing On A Log Home extends well into Central America. The Chihuahuan raven occurs in portions of Arizona, New Mexico, Texas and throughout Mexico (Hines et al. 1996).

Ravens generally are a resident species but some wandering and local migration occurs with immature and nonbreeding birds How To Stop Squirrels From Gnawing On A Log Home. Immature birds, which have left their parents, form flocks with non-breeding adults; these flocks tend to roam and are loose-knit and straggling (Goodwin 1986).

The raven is an omnivorous species known to feed on carrion, crops, eggs and birds, small mammals, amphibians, reptiles, fish, and insects (Nelson 1934). Larsen and Dietrich (1970) noted that it How To Stop Squirrels From Gnawing On A Log Home is generally acknowledged that ravens are responsible for lamb mortality on spring lambing ranges. Ravens also cause damage to nut and fruit orchards and livestock feed in the State.

Ravens are seen year-round by ADC personnel across the State, suggesting they are very common. Knight and Call (1981) summarized a number of How To Stop Squirrels From Gnawing On A Log Home studies on common raven territories and home ranges in the west. Nesting territories ranged in size from 3.62 mi2 to 15.7 mi2 in Wyoming and Oregon and home ranges varied from 2.53 mi2 to 3 - 6 mi2 in Utah and Oregon.

Linz et al. (1990) found nest densities of one/1.7 mi2 in their Camp Pendleton, California study. Data from the Breeding Bird Survey show a steady How To Stop Squirrels From Gnawing On A Log Home increase in breeding numbers of common ravens nationwide between 1966 and 1994. The annual index approximately doubled in that time period.

The index for Arizona showed a 7.3% per year average increase over that time period, a 3.5%/year increase from 1966-79, and a 9.3%/year increase from 1980-1994 (Hines et al. 1996). These How To Stop Squirrels From Gnawing On A Log Home data clearly indicate that human caused mortality has not resulted in any declines in common raven numbers in either the short or long term in the nation or in the State.

Therefore, significant impacts on common ravens are not expected. The BBS survey indicates the U.S. population of the Chihuahuan raven has experienced a 2.5%/year decline from 1966 through 1994. No How To Stop Squirrels From Gnawing On A Log Home trend data were available for Arizona, but New Mexico data indicate a 12%/year increase from 1966-1979 and a 0.6%/year increase from 1980-1994 (Hines et al. 1996).

Thus, the trend for the species in the western portion of its range appears to be increasing. Most raven damage situations in the State involve the common raven and not the Chihuahuan raven. Thus, lethal BDM How To Stop Squirrels From Gnawing On A Log Home impacts on the latter species are expected to be minor. The two species are easily distinguished from one another by the white area on the back of the neck on the Chihuahuan raven.

Should the status of the species change to one of concern, damage situations could be individually evaluated and treated in ways to avoid significant How To Stop Squirrels From Gnawing On A Log Home impacts on the Chihuahuan raven population.4.1.1.2 Alternative 2 - No Federal ADC BDM Under this alternative, ADC would have no impact on target species populations in the State.

Private efforts to reduce or prevent depredations could increase which could result in impacts on target species populations to an unknown degree. Impacts on target How To Stop Squirrels From Gnawing On A Log Home species under this alternative could be the same, less, or more than those of the proposed action depending on the level of effort expended by private persons.

For the same reasons shown in the population impacts analysis in section 4.1.1.1 it is unlikely that starlings or other target How To Stop Squirrels From Gnawing On A Log Home populations would be impacted significantly by implementation of this alternative. DRC-1339 is currently only available for use by ADC employees.

It is hypothetically possible that frustration caused by the inability to reduce losses could lead to illegal use of other chemical toxicants which could lead to unknown How To Stop Squirrels From Gnawing On A Log Home impacts on target bird populations. 4.1.1.3 Alternative 3 - Technical Assistance Only Under this alternative, ADC would have no impact on target species populations directly.

Private efforts to reduce or prevent damage and perceived disease transmission risks could increase which could result in impacts on those populations. For the same How To Stop Squirrels From Gnawing On A Log Home reasons shown in the population impacts analysis in section 4.1.1.1, it is unlikely that starling or other target populations would be impacted significantly by implementation of this alternative.

Impacts and hypothetical risks of illegal chemical toxicant use under this alternative would probably be about the same as those under Alternative 2. Under this alternative, ADC take of target How To Stop Squirrels From Gnawing On A Log Home species would probably be less than that of the proposed action because lethal actions by ADC would be restricted to situations in which nonlethal controls have been tried, in most cases by the requestor but also by ADC, without success.

No preventive lethal control actions would be taken by ADC. For many individual damage situations, this alternative would be similar to the current How To Stop Squirrels From Gnawing On A Log Home program because many producers have tried one or more nonlethal methods such as propane exploders and pyrotechnics without success or have considered them and found them to be impractical in their particular situations prior to requesting ADC assistance.

Without ADC conducting BDM activities, it is likely that private BDM efforts would increase, leading to potentially similar or even greater cumulative impacts than those of the proposed action. For the same How To Stop Squirrels From Gnawing On A Log Home reasons shown in the population impacts analysis in section 4.1.1.1, it is unlikely that statewide target species populations would be impacted significantly by implementation of this alternative.

Impacts and hypothetical risks of illegal chemical toxicant use under this alternative would probably be greater than the proposed How To Stop Squirrels From Gnawing On A Log Home action, but less than those under Alternatives 2 and 3. 4.1.2 Effects on Nontarget Species Populations, including Threatened and Endangered Species.

Alternative 1 - Continue the Current Federal Bird Damage Management Program (The Proposed Action) No nontarget birds are known to have been taken during BDM operations as described in the proposed How To Stop Squirrels From Gnawing On A Log Home action in the last 3 years. However one suspected incident of nontarget take occurred in November, 1992, when 41 dead mourning doves (Zenaidura macroura) were retrieved near a dairy which had been treated with DRC-1339 to alleviate a starling problem.

Independent investigations by the AGFD and the ADA were never able to determine a cause of death. No EPA/FIFRA label violations or Migratory Bird Treaty Act violations were documented. While every How To Stop Squirrels From Gnawing On A Log Home precaution (See 3.4) is taken to safeguard against taking nontarget birds, at times changes in local flight patterns and other unanticipated events can result in the incidental take of unintended species.

These occurrences are rare and should not affect the overall populations of any species under the current How To Stop Squirrels From Gnawing On A Log Home program. Inter-specific nest competition has been well documented in starlings. Miller (1975) and Barnes (1991) reported starlings were responsible for a severe depletion of the eastern bluebird (Sialis sialis) population due to nest competition.

Nest competition by starlings has also been known to adversely impact sparrow hawks (American kestrell (Falco sparverius) (Nickell 1967; Von Jarchow 1943; How To Stop Squirrels From Gnawing On A Log Home Wilmers 1987), redbellied woodpeckers (Centurus carolinus), Gila woodpeckers (Centurus uropygialis) (Ingold 1994; Kerpez et.al. 1990), and wood ducks (Aix sponsa) (Shake 1967; Heusmann et.al. 1977; Grabill 1977; McGilvery et.al 1971).

Weitzel (1988) reported 9 native species of birds in Nevada had been displaced by starling nest competition, and Mason et al. (1972) reported starlings evicting bats from nest holes. Control operations as proposed in this How To Stop Squirrels From Gnawing On A Log Home alternative would reduce starling populations, although probably not significantly. Reduction in nest site competition would be a beneficial impact on the species listed above. Although such reductions are not likely to be significant, the benefits would probably outweigh any adverse impacts due to nontarget take.

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