Smoke Damage >> How To Restore Furniture From Smoke Damage

A review is presented of the state of the art of smoke production measurement, prediction of smoke impact as part of computer-based fire modeling, and measurement and prediction of the impact of smoke through deposition of soot on and How To Restore Furniture From Smoke Damage corrosion of electrical equipment. 

The literature review on smoke corrosivity testing and damage due to smoke deposition emphasizes(despite extensive research on smoke corrosivity) the lack of validated and How To Restore Furniture From Smoke Damage widely applicable prescriptive or performance based methods to assure electrical equipment survivability given exposure to smoke from a fire. 

Circuit bridging via current leakage through deposited smoke was identified as a potentially important mechanism of electronic and electrical equipment failure during nuclear power plant fires.In the near term, How To Restore Furniture From Smoke Damage assessment of potential damage can reasonably be based on the airborne smoke exposure concentration and the exposure duration. 

Hence, models that can predict the airborne smoke concentration would be sufficient to provide upper limit estimates of potential damage.In the longer term, it would be desirable to develop models that could estimate the deposition behavior of smoke, and How To Restore Furniture From Smoke Damage specifically correlate the combination of deposited and airborne smoke to component damage. 

The Browns Ferry nuclear power plant (NPP) fire in 1975 demonstrated that instrument, control,and power cables are susceptible to fire damage [1-3]. At Browns Ferry, How To Restore Furniture From Smoke Damage over 1,600 cables were damaged by the fire and caused short circuits between energized conductors. In addition to the cable damage, the fire deposited soot throughout the Unit 1 reactor building and in small areas ofthe Unit 2 reactor building. 

Examination of all surfaces of piping, conduit, and other equipment showed limited evidence of chlorine-induced corrosion, How To Restore Furniture From Smoke Damage requiring replacement of affected material and an accelerated inspection program for some stainless steel within the building [4]. In addition to direct damage due to elevated temperature and heat from fires, reports also indicate non-thermal damage to equipment that was exposed to smoke and combustion gases from the fire environment (see, for example, Refs [23-5]). 

Although limited information is evident specifically related to nuclear power plants [4,6,7], How To Restore Furniture From Smoke Damage damage to electrical systems in other industries from fire has been extensive [5,8], with some resulting in losses in the hundreds of millions of dollars [9]. Some non-thermal effects occur over long time periods and thus would largely impact clean-up and restoration after a fire incident. 

For example, How To Restore Furniture From Smoke Damage corrosion several days after a one hour fire exposure can be several times that initially observed after the exposure [10]. However, shorter term effects have also been documented in major electronics fires. In the Hinsdale Illinois telecommunications central office fire, smoke-induced failures were noted within six hours [5].

Over the past decade, there has been a considerable movement in the nuclear power industry to transition from prescriptive rules and How To Restore Furniture From Smoke Damage practices toward the use of risk information to supplement decision-making. One element crucial in supporting the use of risk-informed applications is the availability of tools to evaluate the likelihood and consequences of fire scenarios. 

Risk informed, performance-based (RI/PB) fire protection often relies on fire modeling to determine the consequences of fires. Estimating target damage is a key part of any fire modeling analysis. Methodologies are available to obtain reasonable quantitative predictions of thermal damage. However, How To Restore Furniture From Smoke Damage the current state of knowledge does not support similar detailed quantitative prediction of smoke damage.

Based on previous Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) testing [11], four modes of failure due to smoke damage have been identified. Of these four failure modes, only one, circuit bridging, How To Restore Furniture From Smoke Damage has been found to be potentially risk significant. Current fire models and data are insufficient at this time to directly assess the risk contribution of circuit bridging faults.

Screening or bounding assessments can be made, How To Restore Furniture From Smoke Damage but given current knowledge, would be dependent on the application of expert judgment and would have considerable uncertainty. For example NUREG/CR-6850, "Fire PRA Methodology for Nuclear Power Facilities" [11],includes the following recommendations related to smoke damage of electrical equipment: 

"If the fire scenario involves an electrical panel, it may be prudent to assume the smoke-induced failure of all digital or integrated circuit components within the originating fire panel regardless of the assumed fire size, intensity, or duration. In the event of a fire involving high-energy electrical components (e.g., MCC, breaker, switch gear, etc.), How To Restore Furniture From Smoke Damage it may be prudent to assume the smoke-induced failure of components in adjoining panels or cubicles, especially if those cubicles or panels are connected by features like bus ducts or a common ventilation system."

Such broad assumed failures have the potential to over- or under-estimate the hazard depending on the size and spread of fire and the susceptibility of the equipment to fire. In order to assess the potential for damage due to smoke exposure, relationships between smoke exposure and How To Restore Furniture From Smoke Damage the failure of real electronic components need to be established. 

A smoke damage routine developed for a fire model could then assess the near term (during and soon after exposure) damage potential of electronics and electrical components design fire exposures.1.2 Organization of the Report The overall objective of this research program is to develop a better understanding of how fire induced smoke production and How To Restore Furniture From Smoke Damage transport can affect electronic equipment that may be used in an NPP. 

This report presents a review of the measurement of the impact of smoke through deposition of soot on and corrosion of electrical equipment, smoke production measurement, and How To Restore Furniture From Smoke Damage prediction of smoke impact as part of computer-based fire modeling.Chapter 2 presents previous testing of the effects of fire-generated smoke on electronic equipment. 

Studies focused on NPPs and How To Restore Furniture From Smoke Damage on telecommunication equipment are reviewed. A general overview of corrosion of materials exposed to smoke and of existing damage criteria that have been applied are included.Chapter 3 discusses bench- and large-scale testing and test methods that have been used to quantify the production of smoke and its components from a fire.

Chapter 4 provides an assessment of the state of the art in modeling the generation, transport, and deposition of smoke and How To Restore Furniture From Smoke Damage fire gases in current compartment fire models. Chapter 5 identifies future research needs to improve the prediction of smoke transport and its potential impact on NPP equipment.

How To Pass A Radon Inspection

In announced tests, applicants must conduct all exposures and analyses in the same way that they are done for consumers. For example, device analyses must be done by the participating organization using equipment used in analyzing consumer measurements. Applicants must pass a test for each spec  read more..

Hurricane Damage

A hurricane can cause extensive damage covering a huge amount of area, sometimes a hurricane could affect an area of thousand miles long creating a massive amount of Debris Removal Hurricane Damage. Thousands of people's lives are affected by hurricanes every year, luckily there are only a few hurricanes each year, the  read more..

How To Choose A Mold Testing Company

Mold remediation, water removal Standing water is a breeding ground for a wide range of micro-organisms and insects, such as mosquitoes. Mosquitoes can spread diseases like West Nile Virus. Micro-organisms, including bacteria and mold, can become airborne and be inhaled. Where floodwater is highly c  read more..

How To Get Rid Of Sewer Smells

In general, the TRS concentration was high from the noon to the evening, with several intermittent high peaks (Figure 4(D)). In fact, the shops and jewelers in the district were open late in the morning at 9:00 to 11:00; so low TRS emission could be observed in the early morning. After the shops wer  read more..

How To Help The Spouse Of A Hoarder

An area that needs more research is how hoarding may prevent individuals from marrying and having families. If a person struggling with hoarding is single, how are they able to date if they are unable to bring the person over to their home? Also, finding a partner who will tolerate the hoarding for   read more..

How To File An Insurance Claim For Smoke Damage

EMERGENCY RESPONSE RESOURCES Personal Protective Equipment Respirators Protective Clothing Skin Exposures Eye Protection Hearing Protection Personal protective equipment is very important for any emergency responder. There are five main types of PPE that are covered on this page: respirators and pro  read more..

Secure Your Roof Against Hurricane Winds

During a hurricane, homes may be damaged or destroyed by high winds and high waves. Debris can break windows and doors, allowing high winds inside the home. In extreme storms, such as Hurricane Andrew, Wind Damage Secure Your Roof Against Hurricane Winds the force of the wind alone can cause weak places in your home to fail.    read more..

Information About Lead In The Workplace Californ

Information About Lead in the Workplace Occupational Lead Poisoning Prevention Program (OLPPP) Occupational Health Branch, California Department of Public Health (CDPH) OLPPP provides information on lead in the workplace as well as educational and training materials for workers, employers and [  read more..

How To Dehumidify A Flooded Crawl Space

Intuitively, reheating a cooled air stream using hot discharge gas from a refrigerant compressor makes sense. However, it mitigates only the last of the four penalties of ordinary reheat systems mentioned in the sidebar. The refrigeration plant still must be larger by the amount of reheat. Also, the  read more..

Preventive Measures For Tornadoes

DERECHO FORECASTING Formation Reduced to simplest terms, a derecho-producing convective system is comprised of a line of downstream-replicating, Wind Damage Preventive Measures For Tornadoes ordinary thunderstorm cells. 

Forecasting derechos begins, therefore, Wind Damage Preventive Measures For Tornadoes with examination of the atmosphe  read more..