Smoke Damage >> How To Clean Up After Fire Damage

The correlation is even stronger than just by the day of test. Because each test had a 250 nm probe and a 4500 nm probe, the test-to-test correlation was strong as seen in Figure 11. The strength of the correlation seems to reinforce the variability in the performance of the material and not just uncertainty in the How To Clean Up After Fire Damage test measurement. 

Some possible explanations are offered in Appendix B. There is an issue with pitting that can overestimate the total corrosion of the effluent. This effect is increased with the use of the How To Clean Up After Fire Damage thinner probe. That would seem to account for the fact that 250 nm probes consistently read a higher level of corrosion. The other issue with the corrosimeter is that the hybrid dynamic/static nature of testing makes it sensitive to differences and variability of HRR between materials and How To Clean Up After Fire Damage tests. 

The strong correlation with the day the test was run has no clear explanation. It implies that some variable that was not accounted for changed between the two days, How To Clean Up After Fire Damage but it is impossible to tell from the paper. Grand [87] first discussed using a modified version of the NIST cup furnace used for toxicity testing [88, 89] as a test method for both corrosion and toxicity testing. 

The apparatus is able to determine an ignition time, rate of smoke evolution, total amount of smoke produced, and How To Clean Up After Fire Damage characterization of the smoke in terms of either toxicity or corrosivity. The test method's flexibility in fire conditions as well as it being a closed system were listed as its key advantages.

In 1991, Grand [90] proposed a modified version of the original proposed test focusing on corrosion. A copper probe using resistance to measure metal loss was added to the system. The system was tested with six plastics: How To Clean Up After Fire Damage Ethylene-vinyl acetate (EVA) Ethylene-vinyl acetate with fire retardant using red phosphorus (FR-EVA) Low density polyethylene (LDPE) 

Low density polyethylene with fire retardant using red phosphorus (FR-6400) Polyethylene with fire retardant using bromine (PE165) Polyvinyl chloride (PVC).These tests were run using both 25 kW/m2and 50 kW/m2, irradiating the samples for 15 minutes in each test. The tests generated the expected results with PVC, How To Clean Up After Fire Damage clearly the worst material in both total metal lost and the rate of metal loss. 

The PE165 was a distant second and the pure EVA and LDPE were the best. Grand also showed that humidity increased the corrosion rate and total corrosion, as theory and How To Clean Up After Fire Damage experience predict [87]. Grand also showed time histories of the amount of metal lost in different tests. The utility of this information is clear from the very different shapes of the curves from different test materials.

Some materials had a relatively high rate of corrosion that slowly decreased over time while other How To Clean Up After Fire Damage materials caused short but very rapid loss of material before sharply changing to a much slower rate of loss so that they looked almost like step functions.Grand summarized the development of the radiant panel test [91]. 

He argues that the radiant panel test is flexible and How To Clean Up After Fire Damage useful for characterizing the corrosivity of a material's effluent. He lists five advantages of this system, which include: Flexible combustion conditions Capturing all fire effluent from the test Multiple corrosion probes can be placed in the large test chamber 

The method has proven an ability to distinguish between different polymer materials Products can be tested in their end use. Grand also identified a number of fundamental research issues that needed to be addressed for all corrosion testing and How To Clean Up After Fire Damage not just the radiant panel. They included: The response of resistance probes to hot, moist clean atmospheres 

The repeatability of resistance probe measurements The response of resistance probes to known quantities of known corrosive agents The impact of orientation and How To Clean Up After Fire Damage exposure time on measurements The importance of using metals besides copper in resistance probes.The PFPC also studied the radiant furnace test [73]. 

They found that the test differentiated between different types of polymers. The main concern expressed was the repeatability of the test. For a single material, How To Clean Up After Fire Damage they had three tests in which metal loss was between 15 … and 30 …,two with metal loss between 30 … and 120 … and one with metal loss measured at 784 …. 

Even excluding the 784 … case, How To Clean Up After Fire Damage the standard deviation was very high with a mean of 170 … ± 303 …including the 784 … case, and 47 …± 42 … excluding it. A gas analysis found that the minimum oxygen concentration was high enough to be assured that combustion was not oxygen limited. 

Looking at sample size, they found that increasing the mass did not increase the corrosion that occurred by the same factor. They also found that seven out of nine of the smaller samples didn't seem to reach flaming combustion, How To Clean Up After Fire Damage but weight loss data showed a significant amount of decomposition did occur.

Finally, because some of the test materials were able to corrode the 2500 … probe beyond itsmaximum measurement capability, they also used probes of 25,000 … copper foil. There seemedto be a linear relationship between the thicknesses of probes and How To Clean Up After Fire Damage corrosivity. They theorized that the copper foil had fewer lattice defects than the dc magnetron sputter-formed 2500 … probes they used for all other tests. 

They note as described in Appendix B that increased pitting would significantly change the resistance even though little metal had actually been lost. As mentioned before, Hirschler and Smith [67] showed that all fires are corrosive and How To Clean Up After Fire Damage that it is not just acid gases that cause the corrosion. In this work that was originally presented in the October 1987 '

Corrosive Effects of Combustion Products' conference in London, How To Clean Up After Fire Damage the results of a number of experiments were shown. The work exposed steel coupons and copper mirrors in an ASTM E662 "NBS Smoke Density Chamber" to the effluent of a number of products for an hour and then weighed the amount of material that was lost to corrosion.

While they did test copper mirrors, How To Clean Up After Fire Damage the primary focus of the work was the corrosion of steel.They were able to test the corrosivity of the same products in a number of environmental conditions. Corrosion of steel was measured by determining the amount of steel left after the exposure period. Two chamber temperature conditions were used, near ambient, and heated to between 100 C (212 F) and 110 C (230 F). 

In the near ambient tests, one coupon was placed on a bag of ice to enhance condensation. For the cases where the chamber was heated, one coupon was placed on a hot plate and How To Clean Up After Fire Damage warmed to 550 C (1022 F). Both test series had three untreated coupons in each test as well as a coupon that was pretreated with machine oil. 

Two of the three untreated coupons were treated a day later to simulate cleaning. All tests used a highhumidity environment.

How To Restore Flood Damaged Photos

The first formulation of standards of practice and professional relations by any group of art conservators was produced by the IIC-American Group (now AIC) Committee on Professional Standards and Procedures. Document restoration How To Restore Flood Damaged Photos

Formed at the second regular meeting of the IIC-AG, in  read more..

Roof Leak Detection

Moldy surfaces should be cleaned first and then disinfected; some products do both in a single step. In all cases, mold spores should be removed as completely as possible since killing them does not eliminate their toxicity or allergenic properties.Application of Cleaners are most efficiently a  read more..

How To Get Water Out Of A Flooded Basement

a cross-section view of an exterior wall, shows one method of sealing masonry  walls with an asphalt-based coating that does not detract from their appearance. In this method, a new masonry veneer Basement Drying How To Get Water Out Of A Flooded Basement is added to the existing veneer after the coating is applied. In addition to m  read more..

The Typical Cost Of Tree Removal

Tornado Debris: Damage from tornadoes is caused by high-velocity rotating winds. The severity of the damage depends on the size of the tornado funnel and the length of time the funnel touches the ground. Damage is generally confined to a narrow path extending up to half a mile wide and Debris Removal The Typical Cost Of Tree Removal&nbs  read more..

Clean Up Flood Damage And Hazardous Materials

In all likelihood, hazardous materials will be encountered during the cleanup phase of the flood recovery effort: containers and other vessels that may hold materials that can either pose an immediate risk to cleanup crews if disturbed or might be classified as a hazardous waste for disposal purpose  read more..

Electronic Systems In Flood damaged Buildings

Electronic Systems in Flood-damaged Buildings
Question: Do electrical systems and equipment submerged through flooding have to be replaced? Answer: Floodwaters are not just water; the water may also be contaminated with chemicals, sewage, oil and other debris. When the floodwater   read more..

Fire Damage

Artistic Emergency Board up Fire Damage means painting on material that is used to secure door, window, or other openings to resemble the original opening which they are covering. There is to be no standard pattern requirement. The overall purpose is to have a structure that does not draw attention to the eye of someo  read more..

Mold Inside The Wall From A Plumbing Leak

By The Post-Standard Syracuse, NY -- The daily doses of rain that have fallen on Central New York this spring may have some Syracuse area residents ready to call Noah for a reservation. The region has received at least a trace of rain every day since April 16. Since then, Mold Remediation Mold Inside The Wall From A Plumbing Leak about 8 inch  read more..

Grants For Tornado Damage Tree Removal

Building demolition debris Approximately 300 houses in Lincoln County sustained damage amounting to more than 50 percent of the value of the house. Most of these homeowners chose to sell their properties to the county in a buyout and demolition program. FEMA and the state Community Development Block  read more..

How To Dehumidify Your Water Damaged Home

Figure 2 shows a picture of the experimental system. The evaporator and condenser chambers are Dehumidification How To Dehumidify Your Water Damaged Home shown in the center of the picture. Both are wrapped with black polyethylene foam insulation to prevent heat transfer to or from the ambient environment. The air and water piping is also cov  read more..