Smoke Damage >> How To Clean Smoke Damage From Walls And Fixtures

The total amount of a given species released by a fire is thus dependent on the fuel consumed.This is most typically specified as a user input based on a combination of the burning object's heat release rate, mass loss rate, and heat of combustion (Hc) related as ܳ. The discussion above is essentially book-keeping, the accounting of the gas molecules formed in the combustion process using estimates or How To Clean Smoke Damage From Walls And Fixtures empirical values for νS, νHCl,etc. 

The heat release rate is also dependent on the amount of oxygen and local temperature; How To Clean Smoke Damage From Walls And Fixtures that is combustion will only take place if there is sufficient oxygen and temperature for the reaction. Thus, unburned fuel may also be transported from the fire source and perhaps combusted in regions removed from the initial fire location. 

The level of detail in local burning is model dependent 6. Smoke and Species Transport Transport of mass and energy in computer fire models, including individual species, How To Clean Smoke Damage From Walls And Fixtures is simply based on a mass and energy balance at the boundaries. The level of detail naturally depends on the complexity of the model. 

For zone models, species transport, including soot, How To Clean Smoke Damage From Walls And Fixtures is tracked as it is generated by a fire, transports through vents from compartment to compartment, or mixed between layers (control volumes) within a compartment. For computational fluid dynamics(CFD) fire models, the transport is tracked from individual grid cells (control volumes) to adjacent cells.

In either case, each unit mass of a species produced by a fire is carried in the flow to the control volumes and may accumulate within these. The model keeps track of the mass of each species in each volume, How To Clean Smoke Damage From Walls And Fixtures and knowing the volume of each control volume, one can easily calculate the concentration of each tracked species as a function of time. 

Detailed chemistry effects are not included, How To Clean Smoke Damage From Walls And Fixtures but are represented as a global representation.4.3 Modeling of Deposition on Compartment Surfaces Smoke deposition on compartment surfaces is an important phenomenon that needs to be understood to assess the effects of smoke far removed from the fire source. 

Both smoke particulates and gas phase species will deposit or stick to and How To Clean Smoke Damage From Walls And Fixtures react with compartment surfaces providing a sink to the fluid mass balance. A fairly accurate accounting of the smoke concentration at the location of critical electrical equipment vulnerable to failure is necessary to make a quantitative assessment.

For hydrogen chloride, How To Clean Smoke Damage From Walls And Fixtures it has been shown [101,102] that significant amounts of the substance may be removed through adsorption by surfaces that contact smoke. HCl production is treated in a manner similar to other species. However, an additional term is required to allow for deposition on, and subsequent absorption into, material surfaces. 

Limited empirical data areavailable for deposition of HCl on several typical compartment surfaces that provide correlations for the adsorption and How To Clean Smoke Damage From Walls And Fixtures absorption of HCl. Data for other surfaces or acid gases is not available. FDS [103] includes a model for smoke deposition on bounding surfaces [104]. It is based on simplified thermophores is and turbulent deposition mechanisms that exclude particle size effects.

It has not been fully validated, but appears to improve the smoke concentration prediction somewhat [105].4.4 Modeling of Equipment Damage Equipment damage from smoke stems primarily from an increased resistance in circuits and How To Clean Smoke Damage From Walls And Fixtures connections by corrosive metal loss, and creating conductive paths for current leakage due tosmoke deposition. 

The former may take hours or days after the fire is extinguished to manifestitself in equipment failure, How To Clean Smoke Damage From Walls And Fixtures while the latter may occur at failure levels any time soon after initialsmoke exposure.Though more typically based on laboratory measurement that compares the relative corrosionresistance of two or more materials, simple models for estimating the expected service life of components based on these laboratory measurements have been proposed. 

Corrosion rates are expressed as an infinite series with the effect of How To Clean Smoke Damage From Walls And Fixtures environmental factors taken individually and in interaction. In many cases only a relatively small number of terms of this series would typically be required to make a prediction within the inherent uncertainty of the system. 

The laboratory measurements then look at the expected environment and How To Clean Smoke Damage From Walls And Fixtures the sensitivity of the rate in the expected mean environment to variations in each parameter to determine the coefficient for each term in the series. While the structure of the model has been defined, limited experimental data has been developed to date to support such a model.

Tanaka et al. [6] have proposed a regression model to predict the degradation of surface insulation resistance based on smoke exposure tests. The regression model is not generic; How To Clean Smoke Damage From Walls And Fixtures it only applies to the fixed exposure time in the specific test apparatus described. It cannot be implemented in a fire model in a predictive manner where smoke concentrations, temperatures, humidity and flow fields are changing with time. 

Mangs, and Keski-Rahkonen [108] describe amodel to predict insulation resistance deterioration based on the amount of smoke deposited, and How To Clean Smoke Damage From Walls And Fixtures ohmic conduction through the deposited soot. Hagen et al. [109] describe soot deposition on aprobe consisting of parallel gold traces. The resistance behavior observed was non-ohmic and exhibited a critical loading consistent with percolation theory.

Gallucci [110] has proposed a simplistic model to estimate the probability of damage toelectronic devices based on potentially synergistic effects of exposure to smoke particles and/or How To Clean Smoke Damage From Walls And Fixtures elevated humidity. With data on smoke deposition from Tanaka et al. [6] and on probability of damage to electrical devices from Karydas.

He developed a simple relationship between the probability, p, of damage and smoke concentration of where T is the smoke obscuration (m-1) and C is a constant taken to be 0.038 for vertical surfaces How To Clean Smoke Damage From Walls And Fixtures and 0.202 for horizontal surfaces. The effects of humidity are seen to accelerate the failure. The acceleration factor can be estimated from the temperature and humidity. 

A simple relationship is suggested as݇where θ is the temperature (°C) and RH is the humidity (%). The value of k is limited to therange of 1 to 1000. While its recommended use is for sensitivity or bounding analyses, it does include the important parameters of soot deposition, How To Clean Smoke Damage From Walls And Fixtures elevated temperature, and elevated humidity. All are seen as areas in need of additional experimentation and modeling.

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