Smoke Damage >> Effects Of Smoke On Electronic Equipment

In the United States, flammability requirements for electrical equipment are most commonly specified in the National Electrical Code (NEC) [12]. Specific testing requirements are then defined by testing laboratory standards (e.g., Underwriters Laboratories, Canadian Standards Association, etc.). Such standards are essentially voluntary until required by a building code,regulatory agency, Effects Of Smoke On Electronic Equipment or by the building owner as part of the bid process for construction of a facility. 

Such requirements are included in the specifications of various organizations such as the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), the Department of Defense, transportation authorities, and other large organizations. These specifications include requirements governing the allowable ignition, Effects Of Smoke On Electronic Equipment flame spread, and smoke production of materials, along with the design,installation, and use of electrical devices and systems.

In addition to direct regulation of the flammability and smoke generation properties of materials and Effects Of Smoke On Electronic Equipment equipment, there is also interest in indirect effects on the operational capabilities of personnel and equipment that may be exposed to a fire environment resulting from a fire. 

In NPP applications, Effects Of Smoke On Electronic Equipment operators must be able to perform appropriate safe shutdown operations and equipment may be critical to plant monitoring or to safe shutdown procedures so that both the direct effects of fire and indirect effects of fire generated smoke are of interest to ensure safe plant shutdown.

Considerable research has been conducted on the direct effects of fire in NPP applications [11].Recent studies have reviewed potential sub lethal effects of fire effluent [13]. A review of both direct and Effects Of Smoke On Electronic Equipment indirect effects of fire on electrical equipment [7] was also a resource for this report.

This chapter provides a review of Effects Of Smoke On Electronic Equipment studies of indirect fire effects on electrical equipment including studies specific to NPPs plus a significant base of research related to telecommunications equipment.2.1 Nuclear Power Plant Equipment 2.1.1 Susceptible Components in NPP Applications The earliest treatment of indirect fire damage to nuclear power facilities is a report prepared for the NRC by the NUS Corporation in 1985 [14]. 

The report evaluates the damaging aspects of fire environments, Effects Of Smoke On Electronic Equipment the susceptibility of various components to damage and the importance of those components to plant safety. Of particular interest was the impact of conditions associated with suppression activities (high humidity or liquid water effects).

Elevated temperatures below ignition temperatures of typical materials, and corrosion due to products from cable fire or Effects Of Smoke On Electronic Equipment gaseous suppression agents.Components were selected for evaluation based on the Fire Hazards Analysis (FHA) reports from four NPPs. Those components necessary to achieve and maintain safe-shutdown were evaluated based on Environmental Qualification (EQ) test reports and hydrogen burn tests. 

The EQ reports were used to judge resistance to elevated temperatures and high humidity or liquid water effects. The hydrogen burn tests and Effects Of Smoke On Electronic Equipment numerical simulations subjected a variety of electrical and electromechanical components to elevated temperatures, pressures and humidity caused by hydrogen fires in confined spaces. 

The hydrogen burn results indicated functionality of specific components and likely causes of failure. Based on the sources above and extensive use of engineering judgment, Effects Of Smoke On Electronic Equipment components were assigned ratings in a number of distinct categories describing damage ability and significance to plant operability. 

These ratings were weighted according to relative importance and Effects Of Smoke On Electronic Equipment combined into a single value to describe the overall hazard produced by exposing a given component to adverse environmental conditions. The primary result of these experiments is a relative ranking of components by both importance and susceptibility to fire damage. 

This information, shown in Table 1, is expressed for each component as a single number ranging from 0 to 1, Effects Of Smoke On Electronic Equipment with higher values indicating greater importance and risk of damage. Because the tests used clean burning hydrogen, the applicability of these results is limited with respect to smoke damage, but does provide guidance for identifying components that are both important to plant operation and sensitive to environmental conditions. 

It is also worth noting that this assessment applies almost exclusively to analog technology. Equipment Exposure to Full-Scale Fire Environments In response to reports of significant damage caused by so called "secondary environments”created by fires in NPP and other applications, Effects Of Smoke On Electronic Equipment Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) performed a number of cabinet burn tests aimed to better understand the safety issues associated with fires in NPPs. 

These environments include elevated temperatures and humidity and the presence of particulates and Effects Of Smoke On Electronic Equipment corrosive gases. The primary goal was to determine functionality of components when exposed to these environments. Data were also collected to characterize the environments to which those components were exposed. In addition to the burn tests, a small number of thermal failure and long term corrosion tests were included.

The components used in the tests were selected to represent the most easily damaged NPP electrical components, as identified in Ref. [14]. Some of these were powered during the test and subject to active monitoring, while others were unpowered and Effects Of Smoke On Electronic Equipment evaluated for functionality after the test was complete. 

In order to add conservatism and represent a wider variety of designs, Effects Of Smoke On Electronic Equipment some components were placed in non-standard orientations or modified (such as by removal of protective cases) to increase susceptibility to expected causes of failure.Five burn tests were performed, all using unqualified 1 polyvinyl chloride (PVC)-insulated cable as the fuel package. 

Room size and cabinet configuration were varied as was the arrangement of components. The fires lasted between 15 minutes and 40 minutes, Effects Of Smoke On Electronic Equipment and exhibited peak heat release rates between 185 kW and 995 kW. The fires were allowed to burn completely; no suppression was used. Component failures and degradation due to the room-scale burn test were as follows: Switches exhibited slight sensitivity to fire exposure. 

For some, a small number of voltage stresses (at most 15 Vac) were required to resume conduction while others had only slight increases in contact resistance. Fire size and Effects Of Smoke On Electronic Equipment exposure were seen as the most significant factors contributing to degradation. Overall, fire exposure did not impede normal operation of the switches tested. 

Relays (powered and unpowered) showed minor signs of corrosion after testing but did not suffer any loss of functionality. Meters did not suffer any loss of functionality. It is noted that these are generally well sealed, Effects Of Smoke On Electronic Equipment making them less susceptible to infiltration by products of combustion. Pen-based chart recorders suffered mechanical failure due to particulate deposition. 

There was no indication of electrical failure. Electronic counters did not fail during the burn test, Effects Of Smoke On Electronic Equipment despite significant particulate deposition. Some power supply and amplifiers responded adversely to increased temperatures, but were not affected by the products of combustion and functioned properly after the test. 

Does Bleach Kill Mold From Flood


Should I test for mold? Mold testing can be expensive and time consuming, and it usually requires special equipment and trained technicians to obtain re  read more..

Mold Remediation

Living in a home that has a crawlspace is fine there are thousands of houses across the United States that are built above the ground for whatever reason and have crawlspaces. Along with the many responsibilities of being a homeowner the crawlspace should be checked periodically, maybe mark i  read more..

How To Clean Up Raw Sewage In A Basement

Water from precipitation is not always the only source Basement Drying How To Clean Up Raw Sewage In A Basement of moisture. Urban development usually includes a centralized public water supply for the development. If the supply were through private domestic wells, then waterline leaks would be easy to identify. Simply turn off all the fauc  read more..

Mold Removal

These two traits of progress— ring girth and quantity of summerwood—are correlated to the over-dry mass per unit volume (density), strengths, shrinkages and swells, structural drying rate and other general properties of wood. Because both Structural Drying Mold Removal characteristics vary broadly in lumber cut from  read more..

Florida Wind Damage Causing Tree Removal

We reported that these capability gaps are exacerbated by the need for a clear and consolidated body of PA guidance, and highlighted debris issues specifically in the following summary: FEM's policy on debris removal is unclear and thus open Wind Damage Florida Wind Damage Causing Tree Removal to interpretation. 

  read more..

Mold Removal From The House

What conditions may pose a problem & why What to do My name is:  Environmental Protection Program Specialist(Health & Safety Management),DAS Facilities Management , 860-713-5678 References used in this slide presentation: Dr. Harriet Burge EMLab P&K Chief Aerobiologist and Water Damage Mold Removal From The House  read more..

How To Remove Lead Paint From Old Windows

Renovation, Repair and Painting Program: Property Managers Homes and other buildings built before 1978 are likely to contain lead-based paint. Renovation, repair, or painting work done in those facilities could release hazardous lead dust which could result in lead exposure for your residents.   read more..

Safely Remove Lead Based Old Paint From Wood

The Abatement of Lead Paint Hazards*Under Maryland law, lead paint abatement is "a set of measures designed to eliminate or reduce lead-based paint hazards." Anyone who provides a lead paint abatement service be accredited by the Maryland Department of the Environment. An accredited contractor must   read more..

Home Remedies For Fire Damage

Only fire-safe cigarettes will be manufactured and sold in California starting January 1, 2007.Fire-safe cigarettes, which are less likely to burn and cause fires when left unattended, were mandated by AB178, Fire Damage Home Remedies For Fire Damage the California Cigarette Safety and Firefighter Protection Act, included in a child pr  read more..

Hoarding Is Defined As Compulsive Gathering

Your loved one keeps parts of the home off-limits and the curtains always drawn. People with a hoarding problem often try to hide it. They may close off areas of their home or try to keep others out of their home altogether. They may fear that if you   read more..