Structural Drying >> Flat Roof Leak Repair

In addition to the general guidance given in BIA Technical Notes 28 and 28B, the following are recommended:Note: In areas that are also susceptible to high seismic loads, brick veneer should be evaluated by an engineer to ensure it can resist seismic Flat Roof Leak Repair and wind design loads.Stud Spacing: For new construction, space studs 16" on center, so that ties can be anchored at this spacing.

Tie Fasteners: Ring-shank nails are recommended in lieu of smooth-shank nails. A minimum embedment of 2" is suggested.Ties: For use with wood studs: two-piece adjustable ties are recommended. However, where corrugated steel ties are used, use 22-gauge minimum, Flat Roof Leak Repair 7/8" wide by 6" long, complying with ASTM A 366 with a zinc coating complying with ASTM A 153 Class B2. 

For ties for use with steel studs, see BIA "Technical Notes 28B – Brick Veneer/Steel Stud Walls." Stainless steel ties should be used in areas within 3,000 feet of the coast.Tie InstallationInstall ties as the brick is laid so that the ties Flat Roof Leak Repair are properly aligned with the mortar joints.Install brick ties spaced per Table 1. Studs should be installed at 16" spacing. 

Veneer tie locations for 24" stud spacing are included for repairing damaged veneer on existing buildings with the wider stud spacing.Locate ties within 8" of door Flat Roof Leak Repair and window openings and within 12" of the top of veneer sections.Bend the ties at a 90-degree angle at the nail head in order to minimize tie flexing when the ties are loaded in tension or compression (Figure 9).Figure 9. Bend ties at nail heads

Embed ties in joints so that mortar completely encapsulates the ties. Embed a minimum of 1.5" into the bed joint, Flat Roof Leak Repair with a minimum mortar cover of 5/8" to the outside face of the wall (Figure 10).Figure 10. Tie embedment Table 1. Brick Veneer Tie Spacing Wind Speed (mph)(3-Second Peak Gust) Maximum Vertical Spacing for Ties 16" stud spacing 24" stud spacing.

Nab Wind Pressure (psf) Maximum Vertical Spacing for Ties16" stud spacing 24" stud spacing. The tie spacing is based on wind loads derived from Method 1 of ASCE 7-02, Flat Roof Leak Repair for the corner area of buildings up to 30' high, located in Exposure B with an importance factor (I) of 1.0 and no topographic influence. 

For other heights, exposure, or importance factor, Flat Roof Leak Repair an engineered design is recommended.2. Fastener strength is for wall framing with a Specific Gravity G=0.55 with moisture contents less than 19% and the following adjustment factors, Ct=0.8; and CD, CM, Ceg, and Ctn=1.0.3. 

Nail embedment depth of 2" for 2.5" long 8d common (0.131" diameter) ring-shank fasteners a Maximum spacing allowed by ACI 530-05b 24" stud spacing exceeds the Flat Roof Leak Repair maximum horizontal tie spacing of ACI 530-05 prescribed for wind speeds over 100 mph[End table]Attachment of Rooftop Equipment in High-Wind Regions

Hurricane Katrina Recovery Advisory May 2006, Revised July 2006 FEMA Purpose: To recommend practices for designing and installing rooftop equipment that will enhance wind resistance in high-wind regions. Note: For attachment of lightning protection systems, Flat Roof Leak Repair see Hurricane Katrina Recovery Advisory on Rooftop Attachment of Lightning Protection Systems in High-Wind Regions. 

Key Issues Rooftop equipment frequently becomes detached from rooftops during hurricanes. Water can enter the building at displaced equipment (see Figure 1); displaced equipment can puncture Flat Roof Leak Repair and tear roof coverings (thus allowing water to leak into the building). Equipment blown from a roof can damage buildings and injure people. 

Damaged equipment may no longer provide service to the building. Figure 1 caption. This gooseneck was attached Flat Roof Leak Repair with only two small screws. A substantial amount of water was able to enter the building during the hurricane. 

Construction Guidance Mechanical Penthouse: By placing equipment in mechanical penthouses rather than being exposed on the roof, equipment within penthouses is shielded from high-wind loads and windborne debris (see Figure 2). Therefore, Flat Roof Leak Repair use of mechanical penthouses designed and constructed in accordance with a current building code are recommended, particularly for critical and essential facilities.

Design Loads and Safety Factors: Loads on rooftop equipment should be determined in accordance with the 2005 edition of ASCE 7.Figure 2 caption. This 30' x 10' x 8' 18,000-pound HVAC unit was attached to its curb with 16 straps (one screw per strap). Although the wind speeds were estimated to be only 85 to 95 miles per hour (3-second peak gust), Flat Roof Leak Repair it blew off the building. 

Note: For guidance on load calculations, see "Calculating Wind Loads and Anchorage Requirements for Rooftop Equipment," ASHRAE Journal, volume 48, number 3, March 2006.A minimum safety factor of 3 is recommended for critical and essential facilities, Flat Roof Leak Repair and a minimum safety factor of 2 is recommended for other buildings. 

Loads and resistance should also be calculated for heavy pieces of equipment (see Figure 2).Simplified Attachment Table: To anchor fans, small HVAC units, and relief air hoods, Flat Roof Leak Repair the following minimum attachment schedule is recommended (see Table 1) (note: the attachment of the curb to the roof deck also needs to be designed to resist the design loads):

Number of #12 Screws for Base Case Attachment of Rooftop EquipmentCase No.: 1Curb Size Flat Roof Leak Repair and Equipment Type: 12"x 12" Curb with Gooseneck Relief Air HoodEquipment Attachment: Hood Screwed to Curb Fastener Factor for Each Side of Curb or Flange: 1.6Case No.: 2

Curb Size and Equipment Type: 12"x 12" Gooseneck Relief Air Hood with Flange Equipment Attachment: Flange Screwed to 22 Gauge Steel Roof Deck Fastener Factor for Each Side Flat Roof Leak Repair of Curb or Flange: 2.8Case No.: 3Curb Size and Equipment Type: 12"x 12" Gooseneck Relief Air Hood with FlangeEquipment Attachment: Flange Screwed to 15/32" OSB 

Roof Deck Fastener Factor for Each Side of Curb or Flange: 2.9Case No.: 4Curb Size and Equipment Type: 24"x 24" Curb with Gooseneck Relief Air Hood Flat Roof Leak Repair Equipment Attachment: Hood Screwed to Curb Fastener Factor for Each Side of Curb or Flange: 4.6Case No.: 5Curb Size and Equipment Type: 24"x 24" 

Gooseneck Relief Air Hood Flat Roof Leak Repair with Flange Equipment Attachment: Flange Screwed to 22 Gauge Steel Roof Deck Fastener Factor for Each Side of Curb or Flange: 8.1 Case No.: 6 Curb Size and Equipment Type: 24"x 24" Gooseneck Relief Air Hood with Flange Equipment Attachment: Flange Screwed to 15/32" OSB 

Roof Deck Fastener Factor Flat Roof Leak Repair for Each Side of Curb or Flange: 8.2 Case No.: 7 Curb Size and Equipment Type: 24"x 24" Curb with Exhaust Fan Equipment Attachment: Fan Screwed to Curb Fastener Factor for Each Side of Curb or Flange: 2.5 Case No.: 8 Curb Size and Equipment Type: 36"x 36" 

Curb with Exhaust Fan Equipment Attachment: Fan Screwed to Curb Fastener Factor for Each Side of Curb or Flange: 3.3 Case No.: 9 Curb Size and Equipment Type: 5'-9"x 3'- 8" Curb with 2'- 8" high HVAC Unit Equipment Attachment: HVAC Unit Screwed to Curb Fastener Factor for Each Side of Curb Flat Roof Leak Repair or Flange: 4.5*Case No.: 10

Curb Size and Equipment Type: 5'-9"x 3'- 8" Curb with 2'- 8" high Relief Air Hood Equipment Attachment: Hood Screwed to Curb Fastener Factor for Each Side of Curb Flat Roof Leak Repair or Flange: 35.6*

Tools For Restoring Flood Damaged Electronics

Other manufacturer-supplied test data shed light on the typical behavior of tantalum polymer capacitors after exposure to various environmental stresses. Sanyo provided data that describe the typical response of their capacitors to dry heat, moisture, solder reflow conditions, and Electronic Restoration Tools For Restoring Flood Damaged Electronics DC   read more..

Toilet Smells Like Sewer Gas

Sanitary Sewer Odor Complaints If you have a sewer odor in your home, first look for the source in the bathrooms, kitchen or basement. Pour a gallon of water down the drains and sinks that are not used often. You can also pour a household disinfectant in all drains. If this does not solve the proble  read more..

Radon Health Risk Information

Radon is the second leading cause of lung cancer, after smoking. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)and the Surgeon General strongly recommend taking further action when the home's radon test results are 4.0 pCi/L or greater. The concentration of radon in the home is measured in Radon Mitigation Radon Health Risk Information   read more..

Crawlspace Drying

The crawlspace foundation may leak and fill with flood water, this is usually the case with older Flood Damage Crawlspace Drying buildings and actually will protect the foundation walls from collapse if the outside groundwater level is too high. Unfortunately, as flood water passes through your stone and brick foundat  read more..

Document Restoration

If an expert document restorer is hired, they will remove soot with highly sophisticated equipment and techniques. If you do not plan to hire a Smoke Damage Document Restoration, some of the soot might be removed by holding a vacuum cleaner nozzle slightly off the surface of a document item to be cleaned. It is always be  read more..

Tropical Hurricane Hugo Storm Damage

Hurricane Hugo in 1989 was the most powerful Wind Damage Tropical Hurricane Hugo Storm Damage and rainstorm to hit the United States since 1969 when Camille hit the Gulf Coast. Hugo was disastrous and caused extensive residential wind damage, widespread lifeline annihilation, and massive timber devastation in South Carolina. The rainst  read more..

Types Of Security Fences

Although elevated, this house in North Carolina could not withstand the 15 ft (4.5 m) of storm surge that came with Hurricane Floyd (1999)Additionally, currents created by tides combine with the waves to severely erode beaches and coastal highways. Buildings that survive hurricane winds can be damag  read more..

Water Lead Test

If your residence was built prior to 1978, have your residence tested for Lead Paint Removal Water Lead Test and learn about potential lead dangers. Fix any dangers that you might have. You could get your residence checked for in one or both of the following methods: 

A house paint inspection — this tell  read more..

Hoarders

If and when first responders identify hoarding cases, they are trained to gather information and contact the Mental Health Clinician and Health Department while on site. Emergency situations often give rise to an environment conducive to a hoarders granting access to Health Department staff, so ever  read more..

Hurricane Safety Procedures

The contractor must submit drawings to DCAM through the Department or Agency for approval of any windows or openings to be sealed by any method other than that shown in sketches listed in number 1 above.9. For windows over 48 inches wide or 96 inches in height, the contractor must submit drawings to  read more..