Wind Damage >> Ice Storm Damage

A usual representation of the damaging results of hurricanes is that of Ice Storm Damage storm-driven waves colliding against an oceanfront put an end to fishing piers and coastal houses. Waves, pushed to a speed that is a substantial portion of the hurricane's wind speed, crash against any building in their way with overwhelming force. Storm heave in advance of the hurricane raises the sea level.

  1. The hurricane conveys damaging waves even beyond onshore, Ice Storm Damage which initiates flooding in zones generally well above the high tide line. Though hurricane wind damage could exert enormous pressure against houses, a large portion of hurricane wind damage is not from the wind itself, but from flying projectiles such as tree limbs and branches, signs and sign posts, roof tiles, metal siding and other pieces of building debris, comprising of entire roofs in Ice Storm Damage storms. This kind of wind-borne debris enters doors and windows, and lets the force of the wind to act against interior walls and ceilings not intended to endure such forces.
  2. Rain is heavy in the rain bands encircling the eye of a hurricane. Propelled by hurricane-force wind damage, water can enter houses through typically rain-tight gaps and cause substantial water damage. Hurricane-force rain come into through a wind-destroyed roof could totally destroy a house's interior and contents. The amount of Ice Storm Damage that a hurricane creates differs with the strength of the storm. Hurricane force has been classified in many ways. The worldwide recognized scale today for gauging hurricane strength is the Saffir-Simpson Damage-Potential Scale, which came into universal use in 1974.
  3. Previous to that, hurricanes and Ice Storm Damage were classified as Great Hurricanes, or as Minor, Minimal, Major, or Extreme Hurricanes. Great Hurricanes were considered by winds more than 125 mph, and diameters of hurricane winds of 10 miles or more. The benefit of the Saffir-Simpson Scale is that it conveys hurricane features such as wind speed and storm flow to observed wind damage. The Saffir-Simpson Scale covers the wide variety of damage that hurricanes could create. Wind damage from category 1 storms is designated as "wind damage primarily to shrubbery, trees, foliage, and unanchored mobile homes."
  4. At the other limit is Ice Storm Damage damage from a category 5 hurricane: bushes and trees blown down; substantial wind damage to roofs of buildings; all signs are down. Very harsh and massive damage to windows and doors. Absolute collapse of roofs on many residential homes and industrial structures; general shattering of glass in windows and doors. Some absolute building collapse. Small structures overturned or completely blown away and total annihilation of mobile homes. Of all the Ice Storm Damage dangers caused by hurricanes, hurricane-force wind damage produces the most property loss.
  5. Hurricane winds are exceptional in numerous ways. Hurricane winds are more violent than winds in most other kinds of wind storms; are persistent for longer amounts of time, sometimes periods of hours, days, or even weeks, than in other kinds of Ice Storm Damage storms; switch slowly in route, which lets the wind to seek out the most serious angle of attack and to produce large amounts of debris as the built ecosystem is wind damaged; and transfer large quantities of debris from unsecured objects, as well as from the gradual failure of the built ecosystem. In a hurricane, bursts of wind could be likely to be 25%-50% higher than the constant wind rate.
  6. Thus, a hurricane with constant winds of 150 mph may create Ice Storm Damage and gusts above 200 mph. Experts portray hurricane bursts as a steady local wind speed increase in speed of five to ten seconds trailed by an sudden reduction in wind speed to standards of much less than the mean within one to two seconds. The burst cycle returns in an interval of many minutes. The result of a storm's wind damage is best assessed in terms of the force it applies. Force varies with the square of the speed, meaning that Ice Storm Damage forces multiply very rapidly with intensifying wind speed.
  7. For instance, a 100 mph wind employs a force of about 40 pounds per square foot on a flat surface, while a 190 mph wind would exert strength of 122 pounds per square foot. As a sample, in a 100 mph wind, a 4x8 sheet of plywood would be hurled by up to 1100 pounds of pressure. This article shows how the pressure of hurricane winds rise with wind speed. In 1986, the All-Industry Research Advisory Council (AIRAC), an advice-giving institute for the insurance industry, announced a study of the possible worst-case Ice Storm Damage losses the industry could expect from hurricanes.
  8. The report decided that two $7 billion hurricanes could happen in the same year. At the time, this number may have seemed extreme; the report noted. Though no hurricane hitting the U.S. interior has ever caused $7 billion in insured losses, AIRAC decided that storms of that dollar size are now conceivable because of the large amounts of property Ice Storm Damage situated along the Gulf and Atlantic coastlines of the United States. The first substantial test of the insurance industry's suppositions concerning hurricane damage happened when Hurricane Hugo hit South Carolina in 1989.
  9. Hugo, a category 4 hurricane at arrival, was the most powerful storm to hit the U.S. since 1969, when Camille slammed into the Gulf Coast. Hugo was South Carolina's most horrible hurricane catastrophe since 1872. Hugo caused about $9 billion in Ice Storm Damage, although most of the areas involved, except for the city of Charleston, were lightly established. In 1992, Hurricane Andrew again crushed the $7 billion projected ceiling on damage due to a sole hurricane. Andrew, a reduced category 4 hurricane that did not strike any main population centers, caused an Ice Storm Damage appraised $15.5 billion in storm damage to insured property. This amount does not involve uninsured losses.
  10. Entire losses could have been as high as $50 to $75 billion had Andrew struck Miami or Fort Lauderdale. Given the comparatively small size of Andrew and the detail that, like Hugo, it did not clearly strike a major urban area, the main issue that Andrew brought up was whether the attributable wind damage was equal with the strength of the Ice Storm Damage storm.

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