Structural Drying >> Storm Damage

Woods are a byproduct of nature showing many inconsistencies. Cross-sectional (transverse) shrinkage isn’t always uniform. The quantity of shrinkage happening parallel with progress rings (tangential directions) ranges from one and one-half to two times as much as across, or at ninety degree angles to, the progress rings (radial directions) This difference in 6 directional shrinkages often causes warping in shape (cupping, diamonding and rectangular shapes from squares).

  1. A flat grain plank would shrink more in girth than a vertical grain plank of the same initial sizes. A flat grain plank from near the middle of a log would cup more than one sawn farther out from the middle. To further exacerbate these Storm Damage matters, the quantity of tangential and radial shrinkages (in per cent of greener dimensions per inch of dimensions), varied with the density of wood; i.e. values recorded for western larches and Douglas-firs are higher than that for redwoods, western red cedars and the western pines while they are lower than that for oak, hard maples and hickories when all are dried to the same humidity substance.
  2. Due to density variations within certain trees and between the trees (indicated by per cent summerwoods), actual shrinkages developing often would vary broadly from recorded values for these species. Published shrinkages values given for a species are average; it would be helpful if information included the variation in shrinkages to be expected during Storm Damage. Heavy shrinking allowed when sawing lumber to make up for variation in density and grain point results to a loss of footage. On the other hand, insufficient allowances result in a complete degradation from failure to surface out to standard sizes. Learning anything about variations odd to the timber sawn by a mill ought to be a valuable aid in reducing those losses, where practical.
  3. Not all of the portions of a plank reach the fibrous saturation point at the same time. The outer surfaces of a plank dry first and have the tendency to shrink, like change in humidity substance, progresses from the outside towards the middle of a plank (between opposite faces). Those results in the familiar development of Storm Damage stresses within a plank to cause case hardening, splits, checks, honeycombing and one form of collapses. Case hardening of lumber would result in very low total shrinkage values while collapses would result in significantly high values.
  4. Severity of stresses developed might be connected with the density of the wood in correlation to the conditions of humidity removal through the structural drying operation. Adjusting conditions to lumber traits is essential for Storm Damage; the same applies to segregation of lumber into groups with similar characteristics prior to Storm Damage. Undesirable vertical shrinkage often happens in many different types of lumber to cause twisting, crooking, bowing and cross breaks. Twisting happens where the vertical cells significantly vary in deviation from the axis of a plank (such as spirals, wavy and diagonal grains).

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