Smoke Damage >> Difficult Smoke Cleanup

Because of the scale of the project the usual solvent toxicity and flammability protection techniques were impractical or impossible. For this reason the solvent of choice was Freon 113 (Dupont), a solvent that is both non-flammable and relatively non-toxic. 4.1 PROCEDURE FOR APPLYING POULTICE Approximately 10 pounds of ash was thoroughly Difficult Smoke Cleanup mixed with 1-1/2 to 2 quarts of Freon 113 in a five gallon pail. 

Starting at one end of the carpet, one person spread the material with a shovel, and another used a "cement float" to even the mixture to a 1/4 inch depth across the width of the carpet in a band approximately 2-1/2 feet wide. A three-foot strip of polyethylene was unrolled over the poultice to retard evaporation, and Difficult Smoke Cleanup allow time for adsorption onto the ash. 

The polyethylene was removed after one hour. The ash was then lightly brushed with an 18-inch soft bristle floor broom to aid surface contact and speed solvent evaporation. Once evaporation was complete, Difficult Smoke Cleanup the excess ash was brushed off, and an initial vacuuming removed most of that remaining. Two to four additional vacuuming passes removed the residual material. 

The same basic technique was adapted for cleaning the furniture upholstery. Covering techniques using a variety of materials (paper, polyethylene, and toweling) were devised as needed to protect the wood finishes from contact with the poultice. 4.2 RESULTS While it would have been desirable to have a quantitative measurement of cleaning effectiveness, controlled sampling of the material would have been difficult to obtain, Difficult Smoke Cleanup and would have required removal of original material. 

After consideration of testing methods, the recommendation of chemists from the California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, was that a simple before-and-after "wiping" test done in a systematic format would give a relative, Difficult Smoke Cleanup even if subjective, visual measure of progress. Carpets were sampled in nine representative areas by wiping with an absorbent polypropylene cloth ("Insorb," 3-M, Product #9772). 

At each of the nine locations, three passes were made over the same 1-by-4-inch spot using moderate pressure. Following each treatment the same nine areas were sampled by wiping a 1-by-4-inch spot immediately adjacent to the previous one. As mentioned, Difficult Smoke Cleanup this test could give only a very subjective measure of effectiveness. 

Visual inspection of the cloth, and comparison to the previous sample indicated that the initial treatment removed up to 50 percent of the soot with a second treatment removing an estimated 75-90 percent of the remainder. Presumably, further treatment would remove additional soot, Difficult Smoke Cleanup but it could also subject the textiles to more physical stress than was deemed acceptable. 

One unresolved question is that without quantitative measurement, it is not possible to determine if the two components of the contamination (elemental carbon/hydrocarbons) were removed with the same efficiency. 4.3 SUMMARY This procedure was devised to solve problems arising from a unique set of circumstances, Difficult Smoke Cleanup and hasn't been presented as a method to be used in place of more traditional cleaning materials and techniques where those are practical and possible. 

In this case a large number of large items were cleaned quickly, and furniture coverings that were too fragile to be removed and replaced were cleaned without damage. Had the smoke been of a different composition, or had there been heat or water damage, Difficult Smoke Cleanup a different method might have been more appropriate. 

5 DRAPERIES AND VALANCES Leonard Krowech Called upon to work on the drapery restoration of the fine historic silk fabrics hanging in The Huntington Library, I must say we did nothing terribly different. We did not invent a process; Difficult Smoke Cleanup we found no miracle chemicals. What we did was apply great care to every detail of the work, to item by item evaluation and then, working within the capabilities of a dedicated commercial firm's operation, we took the very best of our processing systems for the job. 

We believed the job could be done and were honored to be selected for the job. Great care was taken to remove smoke damage and to preserve the original color, feel, texture, and Difficult Smoke Cleanup hand (body) of the damask and silk passementerie. 

Window draperies were processed using a petroleum distillate solvent (Petroleum Naptha, flash point 106°F, closed cup, specific gravity 0.79, 6.56 pounds per gallon, Difficult Smoke Cleanup consists of 63 percent naphthenes, paraffins 36 percent, 1 percent aromatic hydrocarbons) in a cleaning method developed by The Swelldom Company. 

Use of this type of solvent eliminates the tumbling process to reclaim the solvent; therefore, fabrics can be air dried. If properly used, Difficult Smoke Cleanup this type of solvent can clean and deodorize fabrics without the loss of hand or color. The procedures used to process the Huntington's draperies were as follows: To ready the draperies for processing, gauze was hand sewn over the passementerie on the draperies to protect the fringe from unraveling. 

Hook protectors were used to protect the draperies from damage. The draperies were bagged individually in porous cloth bags to protect them from any mechanical action. All solvents re distilled to a zero fatty acid count. (Fatty acids are created when soaps and Difficult Smoke Cleanup soils are combined in the dry cleaning process.) 

The distillation process removed all solids and impurities built up in the solvent. This was accomplished under reduced pressure. The solvent was charged with a 1 percent synthetic detergent to assist in the removal of all soils Difficult Smoke Cleanup and smoke permeation. Distilled solvent was filtered through diatomacious earth many hundreds of times per minute so that cleanliness and purity could be attained and maintained. 

Clear, Difficult Smoke Cleanup newly distilled solvent was readied so that the draperies could be thoroughly rinsed after cleaning. The draperies were bagged individually and placed in a computerized Washex lOO-pound petroleum solvent cleaning machine. The machine was geared down 50 percent from conventional dry cleaning speed so that fragile fabrics could be properly protected. 

Solvent was filtered through the drapery fabric for an eight hour period. The draperies were then cleaned in a very high volume of solvent to eliminate shrinkage and disintegration caused by mechanical action After the cleaning process, Difficult Smoke Cleanup the draperies were rinsed in newly distilled solvent to remove remaining impurities. 

The draperies were lightly processed with centrifugal extraction to remove excess solvent and Difficult Smoke Cleanup air dried at room temperature (72°F). Draperies were hand finished over tissue and stored prior to installation.

Soot

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