Lead Paint Removal >> Samples Taken By Lead Paint Workers

Samples for dry manual sanding were taken at three different work sites; at each site, three samples were taken on an individual worker while he or she worked on one visually uniform paint surface. A distribution of potential full-shift exposures was modeled for work at each work site. It was assumed that the underlying distribution of 30-min TWAs for the task was log normal and, based on the three sample results, geometric mean and geometric standard deviation Samples Taken By Lead Paint Workers values were estimated. 

These Samples Taken By Lead Paint Workers values were used to simulate distributions of 8-hr TWAs based on a worker performing alternately 2, 4, and 6 hours of sanding during a workday, and having no exposure during the remainder of the shift.(24) To illustrate: For the 30-min exposures at Site 7 the estimated geometric mean is 290 mg/m3 and the estimated geometric standard deviation is 2.8; the corresponding task arithmetic mean estimate is 430 mg/m3 . 

To simulate an 8-hr TWA involving 6 hr of dry sanding, twelve 30-min TWA values were selected from this distribution and the full-shift exposure was Samples Taken By Lead Paint Workers calculated assuming zero exposure for the remainder of the shift. One hundred thousand 8-hr. TWAs were simulated in this manner to obtain a stable distribution of 8-hr TWA values. 

The results of this Samples Taken By Lead Paint Workers modeling are presented in Table IV. The percentage of modeled 8-hr TWAs greater than 500 mg/m3 are presented for the worker at each of the three work sites. The percentage of exceedance of 500 mg/m3 is of interest because this represents the proportion of full-shift exposures at the job site that would exceed the OSHA maximum use concentration for a half mask respirator. 

Of the fifty-eight 30-min samples taken, 57 samples were analyzed gravimetrically (an MCE filter was inadvertently used for one of the samples and therefore Samples Taken By Lead Paint Workers could not be analyzed gravimetrically). The mean gravimetric results for the four dustiest work methods are presented in Table V. The 27 samples with quantifiable total dust results represented in Table V also had quantifiable lead results. 

For these samples the percentage of lead in the total dust collected on the filter was calculated. Figure 1 is a scattergram of these 27 samples, plotting the percentage of lead in the paint (x-axis) versus the percentage of lead in the filter dust (y-axis). Data for the four Samples Taken By Lead Paint Workers work methods (HEPA-exhausted power sanding, uncontrolled power sanding, dry manual sanding, and dry scraping) are combined on this graph. 

The Spearman's rank correlation coefficient for these 27 points is rs 5 0.543 (p,0.05). The 1:1 ratio line is superimposed on the scattergram for illustration purposes. DISCUSSION These Samples Taken By Lead Paint Workers results measure airborne lead exposures associated with the exterior surface preparation work of 12 skilled residential and commercial painting contractors operating in the San Francisco Bay area. 

Although they derive from a relatively small number of samples, the results suggest several conclusions relevant to painters' risks during surface preparation. There is only a small number of other data sources with which these results can be compared: an unpublished Samples Taken By Lead Paint Workers study by the California Department of Health Services of 28 painters who restored Victorian houses in San Francisco.

Data collected by D.E. Jacobs of employee exposures on lead-based paint abatement projects;(10) data presented in the Federal Register by OSHA in support of the Final Interim Lead in Construction Standard;(5) a Samples Taken By Lead Paint Workers report from the Washington State Department of Labor and Industries of five visits to painting jobs at pre-1950 homes.

The EPA-sponsored study of remodeling and renovation workers that included air monitoring during paint removal.(8) The validity of any comparison between these different sets of exposure data is somewhat limited by the fact that, Samples Taken By Lead Paint Workers in many instances, they often represent different exposure durations. 

Full-Shift Lead Exposures The full-shift exposure data clearly show that 8-hr TWA lead exposures of residential and commercial painters can exceed the OSHA PEL of 50mg/m3 during exterior surface preparation work on lead paint surfaces. Sometimes exposures can be very high, Samples Taken By Lead Paint Workers greatly exceeding the PEL. Similar findings have been reported previously in the literature. 

The data presented here also indicate that the higher full-shift exposures are associated with the use of dry manual sanding or Samples Taken By Lead Paint Workers uncontrolled power sanding. Of the 15 full-shift samples that involved dry manual sanding or uncontrolled power sanding 6 samples (40%) exceeded 50 mg/m3 . 

One sample (7%) exceeded 500 mg/m3 (550 mg/m3 ) or the maximum full-shift exposure level (10 3 PEL) for which half-mask respirators provide Samples Taken By Lead Paint Workers adequate protection as per the OSHA Lead in Construction Standard (29 CFR §1926.62). 

These results are cause for concern because both of these surface preparation methods are commonly used by residential and commercial painters (see Table I), and Samples Taken By Lead Paint Workers half-mask respirators are widely used as the sole protection against the airborne lead dust. This concern is supported by the 30-min task-specific exposure results for both dry manual sanding and uncontrolled power sanding. 

The analysis of the fifty-eight 30-min samples (Table II) shows that particularly high mean airborne lead exposures were associated with dry manual sanding (420 mg/m3 ) and Samples Taken By Lead Paint Workers uncontrolled power sanding (580 mg/m3 ). In fact, the mean 30-min lead exposures for these two methods were an order of magnitude higher than those for the other methods. 

This finding is consistent with the full-shift results. This study's 30-min sample results for dry manual sanding (range: 29–1200 mg/m3 ; mean: 420 mg/m3 ; GM: 220 mg/m3 ; Samples Taken By Lead Paint Workers estimated 95th percentile: 2100 mg/m3 ) are in general agreement with exposure levels found in previous studies. 

In the EPA study 6 samples taken during hand scraping and Samples Taken By Lead Paint Workers sanding had a geometric mean TWA of 254 mg/m3 and an estimated 95th percentile of 1410 mg/m3 . EP's study also included a meta-analysis of data from six unpublished sources involving surface preparation primarily by dry hand sanding and scraping. 

Based on 31 samples from interior work, the geometric mean exposure was 58 mg/m3 , Samples Taken By Lead Paint Workers with an estimated 95th percentile of 6350 mg/m3 ; 38 samples from similar exterior work showed a geometric mean of 4.3 mg/ m3 and an estimated 95th percentile of 114 mg/m3.

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