Lead Paint Removal >> Women Exposed To Lead Poisoning

Women exposed to lead may experience menstrual disturbances including dysmenorrhea, menorrhagia and amenorrhea. Following exposure to lead, women have a higher frequency of sterility, premature births, spontaneous miscarriages, and stillbirths. Germ cells can be affected by lead and Women Exposed To Lead Poisoning cause genetic damage in the egg or sperm cells before conception.

Result in failure to implant, miscarriage, stillbirth, or birth defects. Infants of mothers with lead poisoning have a higher mortality during the first year and suffer from lowered birth weights, slower growth, and nervous system disorders. Lead can pass through the placental barrier and Women Exposed To Lead Poisoning lead levels in the mother's blood are comparable to concentrations of lead in the umbilical cord at birth. 

Transplacental passage becomes detectable at 12 to 14 weeks of gestation and increases until birth. There is little direct data on damage to the fetus from exposure to lead but it is generally assumed that the fetus and Women Exposed To Lead Poisoning newborn would be at least as susceptible to neurological damage as young children. Blood lead levels of 50 to 60 µg/100 g in children can cause significant neuro behavioral impairments and there is evidence of hyperactivity at blood lead levels as low as 25 µg/100 g. 

Given the overall body of literature concerning the adverse health effects of lead in children, it is recommended that the blood lead level in children should be maintained below 30 µg/100 g with a population mean of 15 µg/100 g. Blood lead levels in the fetus and Women Exposed To Lead Poisoning newborn likewise should not exceed 30 µg/100 g. 

Because of lead's ability to pass through the placental barrier and also because of the demonstrated adverse effects of lead on reproductive function in both the male and female as well as the risk of genetic damage of lead on both the ovum and Women Exposed To Lead Poisoning sperm, a 30 µg/100 g maximum permissible blood lead level is recommended for both males and females who wish to bear children. 

6. Other toxic effects. Debate and research continue on the effects of lead on the human body. Hypertension has frequently been noted in occupationally exposed individuals although it is difficult to assess whether this is due to lead's adverse effects on the kidney or Women Exposed To Lead Poisoning if some other mechanism is involved. Vascular and electrocardiographic changes have been detected but have not been well characterized. 

Lead is thought to impair thyroid function and interfere with the pituitary-adrenal axis, Women Exposed To Lead Poisoning but again these effects have not been well defined. III. Medical Evaluation The most important principle in evaluating a worker for any occupational disease including lead poisoning is a high index of suspicion on the part of the examining physician. 

As discussed in Section II, lead can affect numerous organ systems and produce a wide array of signs and symptoms, most of which are non-specific and subtle in nature at least in the early stages of disease. Unless serious concern for lead toxicity is present, Women Exposed To Lead Poisoning many of the early clues to diagnosis may easily be overlooked. 

The crucial initial step in the medical evaluation is recognizing that a worker's employment can result in exposure to lead. The worker will frequently be able to define exposures to lead and Women Exposed To Lead Poisoning lead-containing materials but often will not volunteer this information unless specifically asked. In other situations the worker may not know of any exposures to lead but the suspicion might be raised on the part of the physician because of the industry or occupation of the worker. 

Potential occupational exposure to lead and its compounds occur in at least 120 occupations, including lead smelting, the manufacture of lead storage batteries, Women Exposed To Lead Poisoning the manufacture of lead pigments and products containing pigments, solder manufacture, shipbuilding and ship repair, auto manufacturing, construction, and painting. 

Once the possibility for lead exposure is known, the focus can then be directed toward eliciting information from the medical history, physical examination, and Women Exposed To Lead Poisoning finally from laboratory data to evaluate the worker for potential lead toxicity. A complete and detailed work history is important in the initial evaluation. 

A listing of all previous employment with information on work processes, exposure to fumes or dust, known exposures to lead or other toxic substances, respiratory protection used, and previous medical surveillance should all be included in the worker's record. Where exposure to lead is suspected, information concerning on-the-job personal hygiene, smoking or eating habits in work areas, Women Exposed To Lead Poisoning laundry procedures, and use of any protective clothing or respiratory protection equipment should be noted. 

A complete work history is essential in the medical evaluation of a worker with suspected lead toxicity, especially when long term effects such as neurotoxicity and Women Exposed To Lead Poisoning nephrotoxicity are considered. The medical history is also of fundamental importance and should include a listing of all past and current medical conditions, current medications including proprietary drug intake, previous surgeries and hospitalizations, allergies, smoking history, alcohol consumption, and also non-occupational lead exposures such as hobbies (hunting, riflery). 

Also known childhood exposures should be elicited. Any previous history of hematological, neurological, gastrointestinal, renal, psychological, Women Exposed To Lead Poisoning gynecological, genetic, or reproductive problems should be specifically noted. A careful and complete review of systems must be performed to assess both recognized complaints and subtle or slowly acquired symptoms which the worker might not appreciate as being significant. 

The review of symptoms should include the following: General weight loss, fatigue, decreased appetite. Head, Eyes, Ears, Nose, Throat (HEENT) headaches, Women Exposed To Lead Poisoning visual disturbances or decreased visual acuity, hearing deficits or tinnitus, pigmentation of the oral mucosa, or metallic taste in mouth. Cardiopulmonary shortness of breath, cough, chest pains, palpitations, or orthopnea. 

Gastrointestinal nausea, vomiting, heartburn, abdominal pain, constipation or diarrhea. Neurologic irritability, insomnia, weakness (fatigue), dizziness, loss of memory, confusion, hallucinations, incoordination, ataxia, decreased strength in hands or feet, disturbances in gait, difficulty in climbing stairs, or Women Exposed To Lead Poisoning seizures. 

Hematologic pallor, easily fatigued, abnormal blood loss, melena. Reproductive (male and female and spouse where relevant) history of infertility, impotence, loss of libido, abnormal menstrual periods, history of miscarriages, stillbirths, or children with birth defects. Musculo-skeletal muscle and Women Exposed To Lead Poisoning joint pains.

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