Radon Mitigation >> Radon Gas

What is Radon gas? Radon gas is a gas produced by the radioactive decay of the element radium. Radioactive decay is a natural, spontaneous process in which an atom of one element decays or breaks down to form another element by losing atomic particles (protons, neutrons, or electrons). When solid radium decays to form Radon Gas, it loses two protons and two neutrons. 

These two protons and two neutrons are called an alpha particle, which is a type of radiation. The elements that produce radiation are called radioactive. Radon gas itself is radioactive because it also decays, Radon Gas losing an alpha particle and forming the element polonium. Elements that are naturally radioactive include uranium, thorium, carbon, and potassium, as well as radon gas and radium. 

Uranium is the first element in a long series of decay that produces radium and radon gas. Uranium is referred to as the parent element, and radium and Radon Gas are called daughters. Radium and radon gas also form daughter elements as they decay. The decay of each radioactive element occurs at a very specific rate. 

How fast an element decays is measured in terms of the element "half-life", or the amount of time for one half of a given amount of the element to decay. Uranium has a half-life of 4.4 billion years, so a 4.4-billion-year-old rock has only half of the uranium with which it started. The half-life of radon gas is only 3.8 days. If a jar was filled with Radon Gas, in 3.8 days only half of the radon gas would be left. 

But the newly made daughter products of radon gas would also be in the jar, including polonium, bismuth, and lead. Polunium is also radioactive - it is this element, Radon Gas which is produced by radon gas in the air and in people's lungs, that can hurt lung tissue and cause lung cancer. Radioactivity is commonly measured in picocuries (pCi). 

This unit of measure is named for the French physicist Marie Curie, Radon Gas who was a pioneer in the research on radioactive elements and their decay. One pCi is equal to the decay of about two radioactive atoms per minute. Because the level of radioactivity is directly related to the number and type of radioactive atoms present, radon gas and all other radioactive atoms are measured in picocuries. 

For instance, Radon Gas a house having 4 picocuries of Radon Gas per liter of air (4 pCi/L) has about 8 or 9 atoms of radon gas decaying every minute in every liter of air inside the house. A 1,000-square-foot house with 4 pCi/L of radon gas has nearly 2 million radon gas atoms decaying in it every minute. Radon gas levels in outdoor air, indoor air, soil air, and ground water can be very different. 

Outdoor air ranges from less than 0.1 pCi/L to about 30 pCi/L, but it probably averages about 0.2 pCi/L. Radon gas in indoor air ranges from less that 1 pCi/l to about 3,000 pCi/L, Radon Gas but it probably averages between 1 and 2 pCi/L. Radon Gas in soil air (the air that occupies the pores in soil) ranges from 20 or 30 pCi/L to more than 100,000 pCi/L; most soils in the United States contain between 200 and 2,000 pCi of radon gas per liter of soil air. 

The amount of radon gas dissolved in ground water ranges from about 100 to nearly 3 million pCi/L. Why do radon gas levels vary so much between indoor air, outdoor air, soil air, and ground water? Why do some houses have high levels of indoor radon gas while nearby houses do not? The reasons lie primarily in the geology of Radon Gas - the factors that govern the occurrence of uranium, the formation of radon gas, and the movement of radon gas, soil gas, and ground water.

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