Radon Mitigation >> Radon In Water

radon gas can enter a home from the soil through cracks in concrete floors and walls, floor drains, sump pumps, construction joints, and tiny cracks or pores in hollow-block walls. Radon In Water levels are generally highest in basements and ground floor rooms that are in contact with the soil. Factors such as the design, construction, and ventilation of the home affect the pathways and sources that can draw radon indoors. 

Another source of radon indoors may be air released by well water during showering Radon In Water and other household activities. Compared to radon entering the home through soil, radon entering the home through water will in most cases be a small source of risk. The Health Risk How Does radon Induce Cancer? 

If inhaled, radon decay products (polonium-218 and polonium-214, solid form), unattached or attached to the surface of aerosols, dusts, and smoke particles, become deeply lodged or trapped in the lungs, where they can radiate and Radon In Water penetrate the cells of mucous membranes, bronchi, and other pulmonary tissues. 

The ionizing radiation energy affecting the bronchial epithelial cells is believed to initiate the process of carcinogenesis. Although radon -related lung cancers are mainly seen in the upper airways, radon increases the incidence of all histological types of lung cancer, including small cell carcinoma, Aden carcinoma, and Radon In Water squamous cell carcinoma. 

Lung cancer due to inhalation of Radon In Water decay products constitutes the only known risk associated with radon . In studies done on miners, variables such as age, duration of exposure, time since initiation of exposure and especially the use of tobacco have been found to influence individual risk. In fact, the use of tobacco multiplies the risk of radon -induced lung cancer enormously. 

What is the Evidence? More is known about the health risk of Radon In Water exposure to humans than about most other human carcinogens. This knowledge is based on extensive epidemiological studies of thousands of underground miners, carried out over more than fifty (50) years world-wide, including miners in the United States and Canada. 

In addition to the miner data, experimental exposures of animals confirm that radon and Radon In Water its decay products can cause lung cancer. The research on lung cancer mortality in miners exposed to radon progeny is substantial and consistent. Studies of thousands of miners, some with follow-up periods of thirty (30) years and more, have been conducted in metal, fluorspar, shale, and uranium mines in the United States, Canada, Australia, China, and Europe. 

These studies have consistently shown an increase in lung cancer occurrence with exposure to radon decay products, despite differences in study populations and methodologies. The Radon In Water miner studies produced some interesting findings. At equal cumulative exposures, low exposures in the range of EPA's 4 pCi/L action level over longer periods produced greater lung cancer risk than high exposures over short periods.  

Increased lung cancer risk with radon exposure has been observed even after controlling for, or in the absence of, other mine exposures such as asbestos, silica, diesel fumes, arsenic, chromium, nickel, Radon In Water and ore dust. Increased lung cancer risk has been observed in miners at relatively low cumulative exposures in the range of EPA's 4 pCi/L action level (Sevc Kunz, Tomasik et al, Health Physics 54(1):27-46,1988; 

Mulles Wheeler et al, Proceedings of International Conference on Occupation Radiation Safety in Mining, Vol. 1, Canadian Nuclear Association; Radford Radon In Water and St. Clair Renard, New England Journal of Medicine310(23):1485-1494, 1984;Woodward, Roder et al, "Cancer Causes and Control" 2:213-220, 1991).  

Nonsmoking miners exposed to radon have been observed to have an increased risk of lung cancer. The following Radon In Water table lists seven (7) of the major epidemiological studies of underground miners and their reported relative risk coefficients. Estimates of Lung Cancer Risk From Epidemiological Studies of Underground Miners Exposed to radon Study Population Average Exposure (WLM)a.Relative Risk Coefficient (%/WLM)b. 

References Czech Uranium Miners 313 2261.92 1.5 Thomas et al. 1985 Sevc et al. 1988 Ontario Uranium Miners 40-900.5-1.3 1.4c. Muler 1984 NAS 1988 New Mexico Uranium Miners 111.41.8 Samet et al. 1991 Swedish Iron Miners (Malmberget)81.43.6 1.4c. Radford & St. Clair Renard 1984 NAS 1988 Colorado Plateau Radon In Water Uranium Miners 834.45 .06c.

Thomas et al. 1985 NAS 1988 Eldorado (Beaverlodge) Uranium Miners 20.23.28 2.6 Howe et al. 1986 NAS 1988 Newfoundland Fluorospar Miners 382.20.9 Morrison et al. 1988 a. = Working level month (WLM) is the cumulative Radon In Water exposure equivalent to one (1) working level (WL) for a working month (170 hours). 

A WL is any combination of short-lived Radon In Water daughters in one (1) liter of air that will result in the emission of 1.3 x 105 MeV of potential alpha energy. A home exposure of 4 pCi/L for seventy (70) years would approximately equal a cumulative exposure of 54 WLM (assuming 75% occupancy). b. = The relative risk coefficient is the fractional increase above the baseline lung cancer incidence or mortality rate per WLM. 

For example, Radon In Water the Czech Uranium Miner demonstrated a 1.92% increased lung cancer risk for every WLM of exposure. Exposure to five (5) WLM would therefore increase lung cancer risk by 9.6% over baseline. c. = Estimate based on reanalysis of the data by the NAS with the cooperation of the principal investigators. 

The excess relative risk coefficient used in EPA's risk assessment (1.3%/WLM) is that derived by the NAS BEIR IV report based on their analysis of studies of underground mines. A detailed discussion of the strengths Radon In Water and weaknesses of the various miner studies can be found in the EPA's Technical Support document for the 1992 Citizen's Guide to radon (see our publications page on how to order this document) or the BEIR IV Report (National Academy of Sciences (NAS) 1988). 

Animal experiments conducted in the United States and France also have confirmed the carcinogenicity of Radon In Water and have provided insight into the nature of the exposure-response relationship, as well as the modifying effects of the exposure rate. To date these animal studies have produced several relevant findings.

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