Fire Damage >> Soot

Top of Form RICHLAND, Wash. – Cutting the amount of short-lived, climate-warming emissions such as Soot and methane in our skies won't limit global warming as much as previous studies have suggested, a new analysis shows.

The study also found a comprehensive climate policy (including methane) would produce more climate benefits by 2050 than if soot and methane were reduced alone. "Cutting back only on Soot and methane emissions will help the climate, but not as much as previously thought," said the study's lead author, climate researcher

Steve Smith of the Department of Energy's Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. "If we want to stabilize the climate system, we need to focus on greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide and methane. Concentrating on Soot and methane alone is not likely to offer much of a shortcut."

The new study is being published this week in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences Early Edition online. Smith works at the Joint Global Change Research Institute in College Park, Md., a joint venture between PNNL and the University of Maryland. At least two studies have been published since 2010 that suggest reducing Soot and methane would cut human-caused global temperature increases by half of a degree Celsius, or about 1 degree Fahrenheit, by 2050.

International leaders took note and formed the Climate and Clean Air Coalition to Reduce Short-Lived Climate Pollutants in 2012. Soot and methane are called short-term climate forcers because they only remain in the atmosphere for a relatively short time: a couple weeks for Soot and up to a decade for methane.

Meanwhile, the better-known climate change culprit carbon dioxide can stick around for 1,000-plus years. Soot, also known as black carbon, is made of fine, carbon-based particles that are given off by car and truck tailpipes and wood stoves.

Methane, the main component of natural gas, is released from leaking pipelines, coal mines, oil wells, cattle, rice paddies and landfills. A modeled future Smith and his former research assistant Andrew Mizrahi used a PNNL computer model, the Global Change Assessment Model, or GCAM, to evaluate the impact of reducing Soot and methane emissions on Earth's climate.

GCAM is especially suited for projections such as this because it takes into account ongoing future changes in technology, society and Soot the economy, including energy and land use. The model also incorporates greenhouse gases and pollutants that can result from those activities.

Earlier studies of short-lived climate pollutants did not use an integrated, dynamic model such as GCAM. With PNNL's climate model, Smith created more than 1,400 potential scenarios to reflect the many possibilities surrounding aerosols, tiny particles including Soot that float in the atmosphere.

The impact of aerosols on past and future climates has yet to be definitively determined. Ongoing PNNL research is evaluating how aerosol particles affect the atmosphere, including temperature and precipitation. The model also considered how reducing soot could impact other atmospheric emissions, including sulfur dioxide, nitrous oxide and Soot organic carbon.

The study examined what the future could look like in an idealized world where Soot and methane emissions were severely cut by 2035. All feasible and available technology was used to eliminate as much methane as possible.

And all wood- and biomass-burning stoves were replaced with cleaner, modern stoves that use electricity or natural gas for energy. Finally, all cars and Soot trucks were assumed to be equipped with advanced soot emission controls.

Highest possible reduction isn't so high The research found that cutting soot and methane as described above produced an average temperature reduction of 0.16 degrees Celsius by 2050, which is substantially less than the 0.5-degree reduction found in earlier studies.

When looking at individual scenarios that employed various assumptions about aerosols, temperature reductions varied from a low of just 0.04 degrees to a high of 0.35 degrees. For further comparison, Soot Smith also evaluated these results against what would happen if a comprehensive climate policy were enacted.

Earlier PNNL research developed such a scenario, Soot which includes substantially reducing all greenhouse gas emissions, instead of only limiting carbon dioxide as the previous short-lived climate pollutant studies did for their comparative scenario.

While focusing on reducing all greenhouse gas emissions, including methane, the comprehensive climate policy scenario also reduced the amount of Soot in the atmosphere. As a result, the climate policy scenario lowered global average temperatures by 0.27 degrees in 2050, which is more than when only short-lived climate forcers were controlled.

The comprehensive climate policy scenario also provided much larger temperature reductions through 2100. "Focusing on soot and methane may be worth targeting for health reasons, as previous studies have identified substantial health benefits from reducing those emissions," Smith said. "To stabilize the global climate, however, the focus needs to be on carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases." Soot

Basement Drying

When a Fire Damage Basement Drying strikes, many lives could be suddenly turned upside down, many times the hardest part is knowing exactly where to start and who you should contact. The Federal Emergency Management Agency’s (FEMA) along with the United States Fire Administration (USFA) has collected the foll  read more..

How To Catch Birds In The Home In Arizona

The problem of starling damage to livestock feed has been documented in France and Great Britain, and in the United States. As the science of raising cattle for slaughter progressed from range to feedlot operations, the starling Animal Damage How To Catch Birds In The Home In Arizona problem intensified. 

The concent  read more..

Remove Smoke Smell From Fire Damaged Furniture

The effects of smoke range from eye and respiratory tract irritation to more serious disorders, including reduced lung function, bronchitis, exacerbation of asthma, and premature death. Studies have found that fine particles are linked (alone or with other pollutants) with increased mortality and ag  read more..

Microburst Vs Tornado

Major wind damage In Albemarle, Stanly County caused by a Microburst National Weather Service, Raleigh, NC Report prepared on June 14, 2013 A microburst caused by a severe thunderstorm impacted Stanly County, including the city of Albemarle and surrounding areas, Wind Damage Microburst Vs Tornado on Thursday, June 13,  read more..

How To Get Rid Of Dead Animal Odor

Sulfide is a colorless, flammable, extremely hazardous gas with a "rotten egg" smell. Some common names for the gas include sewer gas, stink damp,swamp gas and manure gas. It occurs naturally in crude petroleum, natural gas,and hot springs. In addition, hydrogen sulfide is produced by bacterial brea  read more..

Exposure To Lead

Lead is a naturally occurring element found in small amounts in the earth's crust. While it has some beneficial uses, it can be toxic to humans and animals causing of health effects.Where is Lead Found?Lead can be found in all parts of our environment – the air, the soil, the water, and Lead Paint Removal Exposure To Lead&n  read more..

How To DIY How To Repair A House Damaged By Smoke

Effects on Smoke on Functional Circuits SNL also tested complete and functional circuit boards for their susceptibility to damage from smoke [18]. These boards contained five functional circuits that could be energized and Smoke Damage How To DIY How To Repair A House Damaged By Smoke monitored during smoke exposure. Each circuit was present twice on   read more..

Storm Wind Damage Scale

Area affected by the July 4, 1969 derecho (outlined in blue), with the approximate hourly positions of the leading edge of derecho winds (gust front) indicated by curved purple lines. Arrows indicate direction of storm winds. During the afternoon of Friday, July 4, 1969, Wind Damage Storm Wind Damage Scale thunderstorms  read more..

How To Prevent Sewer System Backup

Having sewage back up into the home is an unpleasant and potentially unhealthy experience. The information contained here can help protect you from the hazards of raw sewage in your basement and give you practical methods for proper sanitation of your building should a back-up occur.
Sewers ca  read more..

Remove A Sewage Smell From Inside A Home

What are Biosolids? They are nutrient-rich organic materials resulting from the treatment of domestic sewage in a treatment facility. When treated and processed, these residuals can be recycled and applied as fertilizer to improve and maintain productive soils and stimulate plant growth.2) What is t  read more..